Compilation backus naur form bnf and context free grammars cfgs
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Compilation: Backus-Naur Form (BNF) and Context Free Grammars (CFGs). We care about. Completeness of specification Determination of legal expressions Resolution of ambiguities Avoid small mistakes causing major errors. BNF/CFG. Backus-Naur Form Context Free Grammars

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Compilation backus naur form bnf and context free grammars cfgs
Compilation: Backus-Naur Form (BNF) and Context Free Grammars (CFGs)


We care about
We care about

  • Completeness of specification

  • Determination of legal expressions

  • Resolution of ambiguities

  • Avoid small mistakes causing major errors


Bnf cfg
BNF/CFG

  • Backus-Naur Form

  • Context Free Grammars

  • Similar mechanisms for specifying legal syntax

  • Both focused on production rules


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Phases of compilation
Phases of compilation

lexical analysis (tokenization) – grouping the characters into tokens (int, {, x, etc) (linear scan)

Syntax analysis (parsing) – grouping tokens into expressions or statements ( int x = 10;) (recursion; CFG)

semantic analysis (Syntax-directed translation), - type checking, implicit typecasting, check indices to arrays, variables declared before use, etc. Necessary because most programming languages can't be completely captured by CFG

code generation (next) – actually generating assembler code

code optimization – looking for ways to make the assembler faster


Code generation using the parse tree to generate assembler code
Code generation: Using the parse tree to generate assembler code

To prune the leaves of a parse tree means to eliminate all the leaves of a node, replacing the leaves (and their parent) with the intended “meaning” (a value or a chunk of code)

After code generation, code optimizer


Parse trees are central to compiler theory
Parse trees are central to compiler theory code

  • They allow us to identify the production rule corresponding to the chunk of code, and from there replace that chunk of code with a chunk of assembly.


Ambiguity
Ambiguity code

  • A grammar that produces more than one derivation for the same sentence is ambiguous

  • Eg: E E+E | E*E | (E) | -E | id

    • There are two derivations for id+id*id – find them both.


Ambiguity continued
Ambiguity continued code

  • There are some languages for which there is no unambiguous grammar

  • HOWEVER there are some rules of thumb we can use to help us deal with many ambiguous grammars

  • Ambiguity often arises if the right side of a production rule contains 2 or more occurrences of the same non-terminal

  • Ambiguity can cause problems if the grammar needs to observe rules of precedence or associativity




Derivations
Derivations code

  • A leftmost derivation is one in which only the leftmost non-terminal in a sentential form is replaced at each step.

  • A rightmost derivation is one in which only the rightmost non-terminal in a sentential form is replaced at each step

  • Remember ambiguity? Leftmost and rightmost derivations are usually unique

    • Generally pick leftmost or rightmost and stick with it

    • if they generate different parse trees the language is ambiguous (not iff)

  • In general, proving a grammar is unambiguous is undecidable



2 3 1 2 4
2*3+(1+2)*4 code

  • E -> E+T | T

  • T -> T*F | F

  • F -> -P | P

  • P ->(E) | id


Compilation vs interpretation
Compilation vs interpretation code

An interpreted language is a programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions. The interpreter executes the program directly, translating each statement into a sequence of one or more subroutines already compiled into machine code.


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