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PREAMBLE OF Electrical Machines and Automatic Control. PREAMBLE STRUCTURE HOLLISTIC FIX KEY CONCEPT KEY RESEARCH AREA KEY APPLICATION INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION RESEARCH HOW WE STUDY KEY JOBS PROJECTS ONE CAN DO TRENDS. INDEX. Introduction to the faculty.

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Preamble of electrical machines and automatic control

PREAMBLE OFElectrical Machines and Automatic Control


Index

  • PREAMBLE STRUCTURE

  • HOLLISTIC FIX

  • KEY CONCEPT

  • KEY RESEARCH AREA

  • KEY APPLICATION

  • INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION

  • RESEARCH

  • HOW WE STUDY

  • KEY JOBS

  • PROJECTS ONE CAN DO

  • TRENDS

INDEX



Hollistic fix of e m a c

  • PRE-REQUISITES

    • Basic knowledge of electrical engineering.

    • Kirchoff ‘s current law and voltage law.

    • Basic principle of transformer operation.

    • What is rotating magnetic field.

    • Synchronous machines.

    • Network theorems for dc sources.

HOLLISTIC FIX OF E.M.A.C.


Hollistic fix continued
HOLLISTIC FIX………Continued

  • PRE REQUISTES

  • (1st Semester)

  • Phasors for resistive , capacitive and inductive loads.

  • Star connection.

  • Delta connection.

  • Conversion of star into delta and vice versa

  • Types of transformer connections.

  • Open circuit and short circuit test.

  • Introduction to machines.

  • Concept of rotating magnetic field.

  • Basic concept of laplace transformation and Fourier transformation.

  • Knowledge of differential equations.

  • Knowledge of signal and systems.


Scope of related fields.

Automobile industry.

Lathe machines.

Robotics.

Designs and layouts of a stable system.

Thermal and mechanical processes.

Power plant installations.

Research and development of automobile industry like Maruti, Ford etc.


TREE DIAGRAM OF EMAC

ELECTRICAL MACHINES

AC Machines

DC machines

SEPERATELY EXCITED

SELF EXCITED

INDUCTION MACHINES

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

Series ,shunt ,compound

TRANSFORMER


KEY CONCEPTS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS

  • Force voltage and Force current analogy.

  • Transfer functions.

  • Open and Closed loop control systems.

  • Signals ( step , ramp, impulse , periodic ).

  • Stability criteria.



Synchronous machines
Synchronous Machines

Synchronous generators or alternators are used to convert mechanical power derived from steam, gas, or hydraulic-turbine to ac electric power

Synchronous generators are the primary source of electrical energy we consume today

Large ac power networks rely almost exclusively on synchronous generators

Synchronous motors are built in large units compare to induction motors (Induction motors are cheaper for smaller ratings) and used for constant speed industrial drives


Construction
Construction

Basic parts of a synchronous generator:

Rotor - dc excited winding

Stator - 3-phase winding in which the ac emf is generated

The manner in which the active parts of a synchronous machine are cooled determines its overall physical size and structure


d-axis

Non-uniform air-gap

N

D»10m

q-axis

S

S

Turbine

N

Hydro (water)

Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator

  • Most hydraulic turbines have to turn at low speeds (between 50 and 300 r/min)

  • A large number of poles are required on the rotor

Hydrogenerator


d-axis

q-axis

Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generator

D»1m

Turbine

L » 10 m

Steam

Stator winding

  • High speed

  • 3600 r/minÞ2-pole

  • 1800 r/minÞ4-pole

    î    Direct-conductor cooling (using hydrogen or water as coolant)

    î   Rating up to 2000 MVA

N

Uniform air-gap

Stator

Rotor winding

Rotor

S

Turbogenerator


Cylindrical rotor synchronous generator
Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generator

Stator

Cylindrical rotor


Operation principle
Operation Principle

The rotor of the generator is driven by a prime-mover

A dc current is flowing in the rotor winding which produces a rotating magnetic field within the machine

The rotating magnetic field induces a three-phase voltage in the stator winding of the generator





Dc motor characteristics

DC Motor Characteristics

The performance of dc motor can be judged from its characteristic curves known as motor characteristics. Following are the three important characteristics of a dc motor:-

1.Torque and Armature current characteristics (Ta/ Ia)

2.Speed and Armature current characteristics (N/Ia)

3.Speed and Torque current characteristics (N/Ta)


Characteristics of shunt motors
Characteristics of shunt motors

The field current Ish is constant since the field winding is directly connected to the supply voltage V which is assumed to be constant. Hence, the flux in a shunt motor is approximately constant.

fig: connection diagram of fig-1 (Ta/ Ia)

shunt motor


N ia n ta characteristics
(N/ Ia) & (N/Ta) Characteristics

fig-2 (N/ Ia) fig-3 (N/Ta)


Characteristics of series motors
Characteristics of series motors

Note that current passing through the field winding is the same as that in the armature. If the mechanical load on the motor increases,

the armature current also increases. Hence, the flux in a series motor increases with the increase in armature current and vice-versa.

fig: connection diagram of series motor fig-1(Ta/ Ia)


Comparison of three motors
Comparison of three motors

1.The speed regulation of a shunt motor is better than that of a series motor. However the speed regulation of a cumulative compound motor lies between shunt and series motors. (fig-1)

2.For a given armature current, the starting torque of a series motor is more than that of a shunt motor. However, the starting torque of a cumulative compound motor lies between series and shunt motors.

(fig-2)

3.Both shunt and cumulative compound motors have definite no load speed. However, a series motor has dangerously high speed at no load. (fig-3)


Comparison of three motors1
Comparison of three motors

fig-1 (N/Ia) fig-2 (Ta/Ia)


Characteristics of cumulative compound motors
Characteristics of cumulative compound motors

The following fig shows the connection diagram of cumulative compound motor. Each pole carries a series as well as shunt field winding; the series field aiding the shunt field.

fig: connection diagram fig-1 Ta/Ia



What is Control and Control System?

• Control is the process of causing a system variable to conform to some desired value.

• Manual control Automatic control (involving machines only—the topic in this course).

• A Control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response.

• Types of control

– Open-loop control

– Closed-loop (feedback) control *

Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad


What is Control?

Manual versus Automatic Control

• Control is the process of causing a system variable (e.temperature, position) to conform to some desired value or trajectory, called reference value or trajectory

• Example: driving a car implies controlling the vehicle to follow the desired path and arrive safely at a planned destination

• If you drive the car yourself, you are performing a manual control of the car. If you design a machine (or use a computer) to do it, then you build an automatic control system

Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad


Open-loop/Closed-loop Systems(Cont’d)

• Open Loop

• Closed-Loop (Feedback system)

Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad


Example 1: Car and Driver

• Objective function: To control the direction and speed of the car

• Outputs: actual direction and speed of the car

• Control inputs: road markings and speed signs

• Disturbances: road surface and grade, wind, obstacles

• Possible subsystems: the car alone, power steering system, braking system, . . .

Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad


Example 1: Car and Driver

Functional Block Diagram and Time Responses

Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad


Example 2:

Antenna Positioning Control System

• Original system:

the antenna with electric motor

drive systems.

• Control objective:

To point the antenna in a desired

reference direction.

• Control inputs:

Drive motor voltages.

• Outputs:

The elevation and azimuth of

the antenna.

• Disturbances:

Wind, rain, snow.

Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad


Example 2:

Antenna Positioning Control System

• Original system:

the antenna with

electric motor drive

systems.

• Control objective:

To point the antenna

in a desired reference

direction.

• Control inputs:

Drive motor voltages.

• Outputs:

The elevation and azimuth of

the antenna.

• Disturbances:

Wind, rain, snow.

Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad


Control System Components

• System, plant or process (to be controlled)

• Actuators (converts the control signal to a power signal)

• Sensors (provides measurement of the system output)

• Reference input (represents the desired output)

• Error detection (forms the control error)

• Controller (operates on the control error to form the control signal, sometimes called compensators)

Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad


Basic integrants in control systems
Basic Integrants in Control Systems

Analysis – Given a system, to analyze the system’s

1. Stability

2. Dynamic characteristics

3. Steady-state characteristics

• Design (Synthesis) – Design a new system or compensate (modify) an existing system for

1. Stability guarantee

2. Good dynamic performance

3. Satisfactory steady-state performance

Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad


Key research area of electrical machines and control system
KEY RESEARCH AREA OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND CONTROL SYSTEM.

Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery.

According to a first aspect of the present invention there is provided an exhaust gas thermal energy recovery system of a hybrid electric vehicle including a catalytic converter, a cooling device, a resonance tube, a control valve means and an electric generating device. The catalytic converter is disposed in an exhaust system of an engine of the hybrid electric vehicle. The cooling device cools a part of the catalytic converter. In the resonance tube, one end portion of the resonance tube is connected with an exhaust gas upstream side of the catalytic converter in the exhaust system and the other end portion of the resonance tube is connected with an exhaust gas downstream side of the catalytic converter. The control valve means is provided near the both end portions of the resonance tube so that the control valve means can form a loop path by using the resonance tube and the catalytic converter. The electric generating device is connected with the resonance tube to generate electric power according to reaction of air pressure vibration generated due to a temperature gradient in the catalytic converter. After the engine is stopped, the control valve means forms the loop path and the cooling device cools down the part of the catalytic converter to generate the temperature gradient.


Employment opportunities
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

Electronics Corporation of India Limited.

www.ecil.co.in

Bharat Electronics Limited.

www.bel-india.com

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

www.hal-india.com

Defense Research & Development Organization.

www.drdo.org

Indian railways.

www.rrbald.nic.in


Jobs websites
JOBS WEBSITES…

www.jobisjob.com

www.careerdice.com

electricalengineeringtour.blogspot.com

jobview.monster.ca

careercenter.aiaa.org

hotjobs.yahoo.com

freshersworld.com

monster.com

naukri.com

timesjobs.com


Projects
PROJECTS…..

Auto hammer striker

Auto side stand indicator and center stand

AUTOMATIC LUBRICATING MACHINE                                                    

AUTOMATIC DISC PARKING SYSTEM

AUTOMATIC DRILLING AND TAPPING MACHINE

Automatic gear changer



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