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OUTLINE OF TOPICS (DAYS 1 & 2) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Day 1 (General) 1A Overview 1B Technology Evolution. Day 2 (Technical Challenges) 2 Roadmap Overview 2A Substrates, Buffers and Epitaxy 2B Physics, Processing and Devices 2C Lamps, Luminaires and Systems. OUTLINE OF TOPICS (DAYS 1 & 2).

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OUTLINE OF TOPICS (DAYS 1 & 2)

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Outline of topics days 1 2 l.jpg

Day 1 (General)

1A Overview

1B Technology Evolution

Day 2 (Technical Challenges)

2 Roadmap Overview

2A Substrates, Buffers and Epitaxy

2B Physics, Processing and Devices

2C Lamps, Luminaires and Systems

OUTLINE OF TOPICS (DAYS 1 & 2)

Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000


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1A Overview

  • History of Luminous Efficacy

  • The Grand Vision of SSL

  • U.S. SSL Roadmap


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0.25%

History of Lighting Technology


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Applications for Colored LEDs

Red Traffic Light

NASDAQ’s Giant Video Display in Times Square, New York (Jeff Tsao)

Programmable Lights on Ben Franklin Bridge, Philadelphia (Color Kinetics)

Rear Combination Lamp (LumiLeds)


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Lighting the Earth

Earth at Night (courtesy of NASA)


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Projected Energy and Carbon Savings

~3x

~5x

Adapted from M. Kendall and M. Scholand, “Energy Savings Potential of SSL in General Lighting Applications” (U.S. DOE-OBT study by Arthur D. Little, 2001), and EIA Statistics.


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Human Visual Experience

Joseph Wright (1768)

"An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump“


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U.S. National Initiatives


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US SSL-LED Roadmap Update 2002


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SSL-LED Roadmap Targets

Targets based on raw economic performance (not human factors)

Incandescence in 5 years

Fluorescence in 10 years

Ownership Cost

= Operating Cost + Capital Cost

100.00

10.00

1.00

0.10

0.01

SSL-LED 2002

Incandescent

SSL-LED 2007

Capital Cost [$/(Mlm-hr)]

SSL-LED 2012

Fluorescent

SSL-LED 2020

0.01

0.10

1.00

10.00

100

Operating Cost [$/(Mlm-hr)]


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SSL Science and Technology Taxonomy

0 General

1 Substrates, Buffers and Epitaxy

1.1 Substrates

1.2 Buffers

1.3 Epitaxy Tools

1.4 Epitaxy Processes

2 Physics, Processing and Devices

2.1 Semiconductor Physics

2.2 Device Processing

2.3 LEDs and Integrated LEDs

2.4 Directional Emitters

3 Lamps, Luminaires and Systems

3.1 Phosphors and Encapsulants

3.2 Lamps and Electronics

3.3 Luminaires

3.4 Lighting Systems


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Sandia’s SSL Website

Semiconductor light emitting devices, once limited to a narrow range of colors, now span nearly the entire visible spectrum. Someday, they may be bright, efficient and inexpensive enough to replace vacuum tubes for white lighting. Energy consumption and environmental pollution would be reduced, and the quality of the human visual experience would be enhanced, dramatically. Yet, enormous challenges lie ahead.

This web-site aims to provide a comprehensive portal to the emerging knowledge that will enable the promise of solid-state lighting.

http://lighting.sandia.gov/


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1B Technology Evolution

  • Traditional vs SSL Technologies

  • Evolution of SSL Technology

  • Evolution of SSL Markets


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Traditional Lighting

Standard

Incandescent

Linear

Fluorescent

Color Rendering Index (CRI)

Metal Halide &

High-Pressure

Sodium

Ownership Cost ($/Mlmh)


Solid state lighting l.jpg

RYGB White

RG

Phosphors

Blue

LED

RYGB White

Mixing

Optics

RYGB

LEDs

Solid-State Lighting

Phosphor

Down-

Conversion

Color Rendering Index (CRI)

Color

Mixing

Ownership Cost ($/Mlmh)


Ssl evolution l.jpg

SSL Evolution

Ownership (40x)

lm/W (9x)

$/W (4.5x)

Costs:

Ownership = Operating + Capital

Electricity

Color Rendering Index (CRI)

Power

Delivery

Cost

Luminous

Efficacy

Lifetime

Ownership Cost ($/Mlmh)


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SSL Evolution(DraftProjections)

Impact on

Industry Revenue

Impact on

Energy Consumption

Technology Diffusion (Market Penetration)

Technology Evolution


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Semiconductor Industry and SSL (Draft Data)

Silicon 2004 ~US$218B

Projected SSL 2015 ~US$50B

Compound Semiconductors 2004 ~US$7.3B

High-Speed Electronics

CD Lasers

Blue/Green/White LEDs

Telecom Lasers/Receivers

DVD Lasers

Energy Conversion, Imaging, Sensing

Red LEDs

HD-DVD Lasers

High-Power Lasers

Ultra-High-Speed Electronics

High-Power Electronics

AlN

GaN

AlP

AlAs

GaP

AlSb

InP

GaAs

GaSb

InN

InSb

InAs


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Day 1 (General)

1A Overview

1B Technology Evolution

Day 2 (Technical Challenges)

2 Roadmap Subtargets/Decisions

2A Substrates, Buffers and Epitaxy

2B Physics, Processing and Devices

2C Lamps, Luminaires and Systems

OUTLINE OF TOPICS (DAYS 1 & 2)

Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000


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2 Roadmap Overview

Technology Building BlockTargetsSubtargetsDecisionsChallenges

0 Introduction to SSL7113

1 Substrates, Buffers and Epitaxy214

1.1 Substrates 3

1.2 Buffers 3

1.3 Epitaxy Tools 4

1.4 Epitaxy Processes 4

2 Physics, Processing and Devices213

2.1 Semiconductor Physics 3

2.2 Device Processing 3

2.3 LEDs and Integrated LEDs 3

2.4 Directional Emitters 4

3 Lamps, Luminaires and Systems111

3.1 Phosphors and Encapsulants 3

3.2 Lamps and Electronics 3

3.3 Luminaires 3

3.4 Lighting Systems 2

Totals711838


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Roadmap Subtargets


Roadmap decisions l.jpg

0 General

Will the SSL-LED chip “engine” be driven at low input power densities with low cost/cm2 and Toper, or will it be driven at high input power densities at high cost/cm2 and Toper?

Will SSL-LED white light production be through a wavelength conversion, color mixing, or a hybrid approach?

How many colors (and in what wavelength ranges) will best balance the three constraints of pure white, high color rendering and high luminous efficacy?

1 Substrates, Buffers and Epitaxy

Which semiconductor materials family will form the basis for the SSL-LED chip “engine” -- AlGaInN only, or a combination of AlGaInP and AlGaInN?

*Which low-defect-density substrate or substrate+buffer combination will form the basis for epitaxial AlGaInN devices: Native GaN, Sapphire/SiC + Buffer, or Removable GaN?

2 Physics, Processing and Devices

Will the SSL-LED light chip “engine” be based on spontaneous (LEDs) or stimulated (lasers) emission devices?

*Will the SSL-LED light chip “engine” be a single-function generator of monochromatic light, or will it monolithically integrate other functions, such as white-light production and programmable drive electronics?

3 Lamps, Luminaires and Systems

*Will SSL-LED white lighting compete with conventional lighting by emphasizing traditional attributes such as low cost-of-ownership, high efficiency and environmental friendliness, or will it compete by emphasizing new attributes such as programmability and improved interplay with building architectures and the human visual system?

Roadmap Decisions


2a substrates buffers epitaxy l.jpg

Hydride In

MO In

H2O Out

RF coils

H2O In

Exhaust

1800 rpm

2A Substrates, Buffers, Epitaxy

3 Constraints on epitaxy tools and processes

2 Constraints on substrate quality

1 Constraints on semiconductor materials


Semiconductor materials constraints l.jpg

Semiconductor Materials Constraints


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Substrate Constraints

6 To get lifetimes of 50,000 hr:

5 If degradation rate is mediated by dark-line defects and scales as (rdisl) (jcurrent) e-dE/kT, and if Egawa, et al’s data (J Appl Phys 82, 5816 (1997)) is fit, then:

7 50,000 hr lifetime is a tighter constraint: rdisl < 106-108/cm2

4 Near-unity radiative efficiency is only a loose constraint: rdisl < 107-109/cm2

1 In GaN, radiative e-h recombination is quenched within 160nm? radii around dislocations

3 As temperature increases, traps become leaky

2 In InGaN, Eg fluctuations (50meV?) trap e-h pairs away from dislocations


Ingan epitaxy process constraints l.jpg

InGaN Epitaxy Process Constraints


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Courtesy of Arto Nurmikko (Brown U)

2B Physics, Processing, Devices

1 Luminous Efficacy

2 Power Delivery Cost


Luminous efficacy power delivery cost l.jpg

Luminous Efficacy & Power Delivery Cost

Ownership (40x)

lm/W (9x)

$/W (4.5x)

Costs:

Ownership = Operating + Capital

Electricity

Color Rendering Index (CRI)

Power

Delivery

Cost

Luminous

Efficacy

Lifetime

Ownership Cost ($/Mlmh)


Luminous efficacy h int h ext h eye l.jpg

Luminous Efficacy: hinthextheye


Power delivery cost l.jpg

Power Delivery Cost

105

103

101

10-1

10-3

2002-2004

SSL

Power

White

Hi-Power

IR Lasers

Lo-Power

Red LEDs

Lamp Cost per unit die Area ($/cm2)

2002:

3.85 $/Win

2020:

0.4 $/Win

OLEDs?

10-3 10-1 101 103 105

Input Power Density (Win/cm2)


Chip size l.jpg

1 Lamp targets (1.5 klm/lamp, 200 lm/W, $3/lamp) imply overall chip targets (lm/chip, W/chip, W into heat sink, $/chip)

Chip Size

DT

l

1.5klm

7.5W

Gain

l

75¢ Chip

Heat Sink

3.75W

5 Two extremes in thermal resistance (and operating temperature) subtargets

3 Two extremes in chip areal cost (and chip area) subtargets:

4 Heat conduction physics implies inverse relationship between thermal resistance and (chip area)1/2

2 $/chip target implies inverse relationship between chip area and chip areal cost


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2C Lamps, Luminares, Systems

3 System-Level SSL Driving Forces

1 Color Rendering and Luminous Efficacy

2 Approaches to White Light


Color rendering and luminous efficacy l.jpg

Color Rendering and Luminous Efficacy

Relative sensitivity for 3 types of cones

Primates

Mammals

Vertebrates

After Bruce MacEvoy http://www.handprint.com/HP/WCL/color1.html

After Zukauskas, et al Appl Phys Lett 80, 234 (2002)


Approaches to white light l.jpg

Approaches to White Light

RYGB White

RYG

Phosphors

Blue

LED

RYGB White

Mixing

Optics

RYGB

LEDs

Tri-color phosphor Fluorescent Lamp Spectrum

Phosphor

Down-

Conversion

Incandescence

Sunlight

Computer Monitor

Color

Mixing


Ssl driving forces l.jpg

SSL Driving Forces

Color Rendering Index (CRI)

Ownership Cost ($/Mlmh)


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