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21st Century Aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge-based biotechnology. Patrick Sorgeloos. Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center. ARC alumni - September 17, 2009. FISH: source of proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, minerals, vitamins,. Oceans are deserts

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21st Century Aquaculturefrom empirical farming towards a knowledge-based biotechnology

Patrick Sorgeloos

Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center

ARC alumni - September 17, 2009



from FAO






Overview of different phases in aquaculture productions seed, spores, ...

wild

wild

wild

wild

eggs

sperm

embryos

fry

postlarvae

seed

broodstock

spawners

stocking

ongrowing

market

larvae

market

selective breeding

domestication


Asia, esp. China – long history seed, spores, ... large production

Recent developments - successful new industry

FOOD aquaculture

BUSINESS aquaculture


biology seed, spores, ...

technology

profitability

BUSINESS aquaculture


Aquaculture Systems: cages seed, spores, ...


Aquaculture Systems: ponds seed, spores, ...

Courtesy Nutreco

Photo Azim

Courtesy Harache

Photo Schneider


Aquaculture Systems: tanks seed, spores, ...

Courtesy Harache


Aquaculture Systems: indoor systems seed, spores, ...

Photo Schneider

Photo Eding

Photo Schrama

Photo Schneider


World salmon production per country seed, spores, ...

from FAO


Pangasius seed, spores, ... catfish in Vietnam

> 1,000,000 tons/year


Pangasius seed, spores, ... farming in Vietnam

surface area production yield


Taiwan seed, spores, ...

Ecuador

Pond farming of Penaeid shrimp


annual production yiels seed, spores, ...

Chinese mitten crabEriocheir sinensis


Scallop farming seed, spores, ...

Mussel farming


Red and brown seed, spores, ...

algae farming in China


fish 30 mT seed, spores, ...(55% in value)

molluscs 14 mT (15 % in value)

crustaceans 4 mT (20% in value)

seaweeds 14 mT (10% in value)


aquaculture production by species & environment seed, spores, ...

Freshwater

27.8 Mt

Marine

31.2 Mt

Brackish

3.8Mt

from FAO


Global aquatic production
Global Aquatic Production seed, spores, ...

Total

Fisheries

Aquaculture

34.1% or

42.8 million ton

in 2001

9.7%

Human Consumption of Fish:

1990: 13 kg / person

2000: >16 kg / person

48 % in 2005 or >60 million ton


FAO, 2009 seed, spores, ...


from FAO seed, spores, ...


Trade flows of aquatic products into Europe seed, spores, ...

in US$ millions, c.i.f.; averages for 2004–06

Europe imports >60 % of its aquatic foodstuffs

from FAO


“Aquaculture seed, spores, ... is probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, and currently accounts for almost 50% of the world’s food fish and is perceived as having the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for aquatic food.”

“Given the projected population growth over the next two decades, it is estimated that by 2030 at least an additional 40 million tons/year of aquatic food will be required to maintain the current per caput consumption.”


INCREASED seed, spores, ...

MARKET

DEMAND

stagnant

capture

fisheries

environmental problems?

human health risks?

sustainable?

more responsible farming !

INCREASED

aquaculture

production


Priorities for future aquaculture: seed, spores, ...

from empiricial farming

towards

a knowledge-based bio-industry

Aquaculture:the blue biotechnology of the future ?


Priorities for future aquaculture: seed, spores, ...from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets


Cobia seed, spores, ...

Species selection, biodiversity issues, market demands, etc.


herbivorous species diversification seed, spores, ...

highly recommended

! market demands ?

! health risks ?


Priorities for future aquaculture seed, spores, ...: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

  • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication


Overview of different phases in aquaculture productions seed, spores, ...

wild

wild

wild

wild

eggs

sperm

embryos

fry

postlarvae

seed

broodstock

spawners

stocking

ongrowing

market

larvae

hatchery

- algae

- rotifers

- artemia

extensive

intensive

selective breeding

domestication


Priorities for future aquaculture seed, spores, ...: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

  • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

  • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding


wild stock seed, spores, ...

genetic

variation

  • disease resistance

  • growth rate

  • size / quality

  • feed conversion

  • fecundity

  • ease of domestication

domesticated

stock

genetic improvement

breeding

objectives

breeding program


Marine fish larviculture in the mediterranean

annual production of 1 billion fry seed, spores, ...

production cost 15 Euro cents a piece

average survival 20 % by day 60

low survival = critical bottleneck for future cost efficiency and sustainability of the industry

microbial interference considered to be the main culprit

no selected breeds available yet

Marine fish larviculture in the Mediterranean


disease free seed, spores, ...

disease resistant

Predictable & cost-effective availability of high-qualityfry, fingerlings, postlarvae, seed, spores, ...

certified seed


Larviculture research seed, spores, ...

Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Turbot

Penaeid shrimp

Sea bass

Oyster veliger

Mud crab : Scylla spp.


The magic of the green-water technique seed, spores, ...

direct food source

light shading

microbial control

water quality conditioning

trigger digestive system

supply of micro-nutrients &

immunostimulants


Need for innovative microbial management systems seed, spores, ...

Heat-shock proteins

Micro Algae /Feeds

Feeds

Pathogenic

Pathogenic

Quorum sensing

Quorum sensing

Antimicrobial

Antimicrobial

Probiotic bacteria

Probiotic bacteria

Immunostimulants

Immunostimulants

bacteria

bacteria

compounds

analysis

Peptides

Peptides

Gnotobiotic

Gnotobiotic

Gnotobiotic

Gnotobiotic

model

Artemia

Artemia

test

test

Artemia

systems

system

system

system

Qual/Quant

Quantitative

Biochemical

Biochemical

Host gene

Host gene

Performance

Performance

Fish and shellfish

Fish and shellfish

Fish and shellfish

Fish and shellfish

analysis of

analysis of

analysis

analysis

expression

expression

larvae validation

larvae validation

larvae validation

larvae validation

the bacterial

the bacterial

analysis

analysis

e.g.

e.g.

antimicrobial substances

antimicrobial substances

composition

community

Marker

Marker

genes

genes


How to study host microbial interactions
How to study host-microbial interactions? seed, spores, ...

host

host

simplification

MC

environment

known micro-organisms

reality?

complex

gnotobiotic


Gnotobiotic sea bass test system seed, spores, ...

to study host-microbial interactions

Effect of light stress on survival of xenic sea bass larvae

120

110

dark

100

axenic

light

90

80

70

dark

urvival (%)

60

50

xenic

40

light

s

30

20

10

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

time

(day)

Axenic sea bass larvae are not sensitive to light stress


  • Faculty of Bioscience Engineering

  • Animal Production - P. Sorgeloos en P. Bossier Biochemical and Microbial Technology – W. Verstraete and N. Boon

  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

  • Morphology – W. Van den Broeck Pathology, Bacteriology and Poultry Diseases – A. Decostere Virology, Parasitology and Immunology – H. Nauwynck

  • Faculty of Sciences

  • Biochemistry, Physiology and Microbiology – P. Vandamme and P. De VosBiology – D. Adriaens and W. Vijverman Molecular Genetics – D. Inzé, Frank Van Breusegem


  • Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial seed, spores, ... towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

    • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

    • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

    • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding

    • more microbial management for more sustainable production


    70 % of all farmed fish are produced seed, spores, ...in ponds

    Bio flocs

    What is the role of the microflora ?

    Recent documentation:30 % N contribution from bio flocs !


    Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial seed, spores, ... towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

    • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

    • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

    • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding

    • more microbial management for more sustainable production

    • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control


    DISEASE seed, spores, ...

    TREATMENT

    (antibiotics)

    DISEASE PREVENTION

    environment

    consumer


    DISEASE seed, spores, ...

    CONTROL

    preventive measures

    GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    ° water quality

    ° aeration

    ° seed

    ° stress

    ° feeds

    ° effluent treatment


    SINGLE AND DUAL EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF SPECIFIC PATHOGEN-FREE Litopenaeus vannamei SHRIMP WITH WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS AND VIBRIO SPECIES

    PhD Le Hong Phuoc


    Vibrios PATHOGEN-FREE

    Vibrios

    Vibrios

    Vibrios

    Unstressed shrimp

    Stressed shrimp

    Non-compromised shrimp

    WSSV-compromised shrimp

    No mortality

    No mortality

    Mortality

    Mortality

    Role of stress factors

    Role of other pathogens

    Polymicrobial diseases in the field



    Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial PATHOGEN-FREE towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

    • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

    • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

    • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding

    • more microbial management for more sustainable production

    • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control

    • more attention for integration of restocking activities with fisheries management


    RESTOCKING PATHOGEN-FREE

    • juvenile fitness

    • releasing strategies

    • impact on wild stocks


    Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial PATHOGEN-FREE towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

    • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

    • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

    • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding

    • more attention for integration of restocking activities with fisheries management

    • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control

    • more microbial management for more sustainable production

    • more polyculture systems especially in coastal and off-shore farms, integrating different niches of the ecosystem (fish, shellfish and seaweeds) and maximizing nutrient recycling


    BUSINESS aquaculture PATHOGEN-FREE

    FOOD aquaculture


    FED aquaculture PATHOGEN-FREE

    EXTRACTIVE aquaculture

    nutrient recycling


    BUSINESS aquaculture PATHOGEN-FREE

    intensify

    polyculture

    FOOD aquaculture


    • Integrated farming PATHOGEN-FREE of marine fish (cage),

    • seaweeds and molluscs (longlines & lantern nets)


    > 5 km PATHOGEN-FREE


    Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial PATHOGEN-FREE towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

    • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

    • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

    • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding

    • more attention for integration of restocking activities with fisheries management

    • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control

    • more microbial management for more sustainable production

    • more polyculture systems especially in coastal and off-shore farms, integrating different niches of the ecosystem (fish, shellfish and seaweeds) and maximizing nutrient recycling

    • full independence from fisheries stocks for lipid and protein ingredients in aquatic feeds



    ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN / LIPID SOURCES PATHOGEN-FREE

    • plant protein

      • soybean

      • corn gluten

      • wheat

      • oats

      • barley

    human health concern?

    • rendered products

      • meat, bone & blood meal

      • poultry by-products meal

    • single-cell protein /oil

    • recovery protein /oil

      • seafood processing

      • fisheries by-catch

    disease risks?


    SUBSTITUTION PATHOGEN-FREE / SUPPLEMENTATION

    • essential amino acids

    • n-3 and n-6 fatty acids

    • microbial products genetically-engineered ?


    antibiotics PATHOGEN-FREE

    pesticides

    quality

    concerns


    Meer omega 3 in dieet meer vis
    Meer omega-3 in dieet = meer vis PATHOGEN-FREE

    Positiveto health

    Negativeto health

    omega-3 FA(EPA&DHA)

    Fish consumption

    Nutritional-toxicological conflict

    contaminants

    Mercury

    PCBs

    Dioxins

    Risico met visserij NIET met aquacultuur


    ASEM Aquaculture Platform PATHOGEN-FREE

    China AquaFishNet

    China Societyof Fisheries

    ViFINET

    NACA

    AsianFisheriesSociety


    CERTIFICATION PATHOGEN-FREE

    • FAO/NACA Aquaculture certification

      • facilitated contacts between the FAO/NACA initiative and GAA, EUREPGAP, Thai Marine Shrimp Association…

    • Thailand Department of Fisheries & Thai Frozen Foods Association

      • offered networking services and contactsfor info session on Thai quality assurance programs at Seafood Brussels 2007 and 2008

    • Pangasius farming in Vietnam – export to Europe

      • facilitated contacts between NACA, WWF Vietnam’s PAD, Research Institute of Aquaculture nr 2, Can Tho University and Marine Harvest Pieters


    CHINA PATHOGEN-FREE

    Hanoi

    Haiphong

    LAOS

    COMPETE

    COOPERATE

    Hue

    CAMBODIA

    Nha Trang

    Ho Chi Minh City

    Can Tho

    IMPORTANCE OF NETWORKING

    VIFINET

    • what is VIFINET

      • Vietnamese Fisheries and Aquaculture Institutes Network

      • establishment in 2005 facilitated by major ASEM Aquaculture Platform members (Ghent, Wageningen & Trondheim Universities)

      • unites 4 universities and 4 research institutes

    • objective

      • to promote collaboration among aquaculture education and research institutions in Vietnam

    • activities related to VIFINET

      • Best Management Practice in shrimp culture

      • Training Facility project (Belgian Embassy funding)

      • WAS Asian-Pacific Chapter conference ’07 in Hanoi

      • Pangasius Aquaculture Dialogue (PAD) by WWF & NACA


    IMPORTANCE OF NETWORKING PATHOGEN-FREE

    China AquaFishNet

    • what is China AquaFishNet

      • consortium of leading 5 Chinese universities and 5 research institutes

      • establishment facilitated by major ASEM Aquaculture Platform members (Ghent, Wageningen & Trondheim Universities)

    • objective

      • to promote collaborationamong aquaculture educationand research institutions in China

    • planned activities

      • exchange of students and staff between the China and Europe (practical training and/or course modules)

      • develop a priority list of joint research topics (→ joint FP7 projects)

      • make bilateral agreements for PhD study collaboration


    75% = water PATHOGEN-FREE


    Training & extension PATHOGEN-FREE


    Mozambique, VAIS PATHOGEN-FREE

    Kenya, VLIR EI


    Crater Lakes in W-Uganda PATHOGEN-FREE salt (extraction) lakes freshwater lakes



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