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21st Century Aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge-based biotechnology. Patrick Sorgeloos. Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center. ARC alumni - September 17, 2009. FISH: source of proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, minerals, vitamins,. Oceans are deserts

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21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

21st Century Aquaculturefrom empirical farming towards a knowledge-based biotechnology

Patrick Sorgeloos

Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center

ARC alumni - September 17, 2009


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

FISH: source of proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, ...


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

  • Oceans are deserts

  • 60% of fishery resources over-fished or at risk !

from FAO


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Fertilising and feeding carp ponds in China


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

polyculture chicken / fish farming


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

polyculture aqua / agriculture


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Predictable availability of fry, fingerlings, postlarvae, seed, spores, ...


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Overview of different phases in aquaculture productions

wild

wild

wild

wild

eggs

sperm

embryos

fry

postlarvae

seed

broodstock

spawners

stocking

ongrowing

market

larvae

market

selective breeding

domestication


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Asia, esp. China – long historylarge production

Recent developments - successful new industry

FOOD aquaculture

BUSINESS aquaculture


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

biology

technology

profitability

BUSINESS aquaculture


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Aquaculture Systems: cages


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Aquaculture Systems: ponds

Courtesy Nutreco

Photo Azim

Courtesy Harache

Photo Schneider


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Aquaculture Systems: tanks

Courtesy Harache


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Aquaculture Systems: indoor systems

Photo Schneider

Photo Eding

Photo Schrama

Photo Schneider


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

World salmon production per country

from FAO


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Pangasius catfish in Vietnam

> 1,000,000 tons/year


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Pangasius farming in Vietnam

surface area production yield


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Taiwan

Ecuador

Pond farming of Penaeid shrimp


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

annual production yiels

Chinese mitten crabEriocheir sinensis


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Scallop farming

Mussel farming


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Red and brown

algae farming in China


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

fish 30 mT (55% in value)

molluscs 14 mT (15 % in value)

crustaceans 4 mT (20% in value)

seaweeds 14 mT (10% in value)


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

aquaculture production by species & environment

Freshwater

27.8 Mt

Marine

31.2 Mt

Brackish

3.8Mt

from FAO


Global aquatic production

Global Aquatic Production

Total

Fisheries

Aquaculture

34.1% or

42.8 million ton

in 2001

9.7%

Human Consumption of Fish:

1990: 13 kg / person

2000: >16 kg / person

48 % in 2005 or >60 million ton


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

FAO, 2009


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

from FAO


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Trade flows of aquatic products into Europe

in US$ millions, c.i.f.; averages for 2004–06

Europe imports >60 % of its aquatic foodstuffs

from FAO


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

“Aquaculture is probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, and currently accounts for almost 50% of the world’s food fish and is perceived as having the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for aquatic food.”

“Given the projected population growth over the next two decades, it is estimated that by 2030 at least an additional 40 million tons/year of aquatic food will be required to maintain the current per caput consumption.”


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

INCREASED

MARKET

DEMAND

stagnant

capture

fisheries

environmental problems?

human health risks?

sustainable?

more responsible farming !

INCREASED

aquaculture

production


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Priorities for future aquaculture:

from empiricial farming

towards

a knowledge-based bio-industry

Aquaculture:the blue biotechnology of the future ?


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Cobia

Species selection, biodiversity issues, market demands, etc.


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

herbivorous species diversification

highly recommended

! market demands ?

! health risks ?


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

  • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Overview of different phases in aquaculture productions

wild

wild

wild

wild

eggs

sperm

embryos

fry

postlarvae

seed

broodstock

spawners

stocking

ongrowing

market

larvae

hatchery

- algae

- rotifers

- artemia

extensive

intensive

selective breeding

domestication


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

  • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

  • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

wild stock

genetic

variation

  • disease resistance

  • growth rate

  • size / quality

  • feed conversion

  • fecundity

  • ease of domestication

domesticated

stock

genetic improvement

breeding

objectives

breeding program


Marine fish larviculture in the mediterranean

annual production of 1 billion fry

production cost 15 Euro cents a piece

average survival 20 % by day 60

low survival = critical bottleneck for future cost efficiency and sustainability of the industry

microbial interference considered to be the main culprit

no selected breeds available yet

Marine fish larviculture in the Mediterranean


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

disease free

disease resistant

Predictable & cost-effective availability of high-qualityfry, fingerlings, postlarvae, seed, spores, ...

certified seed


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Larviculture research

Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Turbot

Penaeid shrimp

Sea bass

Oyster veliger

Mud crab : Scylla spp.


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

The magic of the green-water technique

direct food source

light shading

microbial control

water quality conditioning

trigger digestive system

supply of micro-nutrients &

immunostimulants


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Need for innovative microbial management systems

Heat-shock proteins

Micro Algae /Feeds

Feeds

Pathogenic

Pathogenic

Quorum sensing

Quorum sensing

Antimicrobial

Antimicrobial

Probiotic bacteria

Probiotic bacteria

Immunostimulants

Immunostimulants

bacteria

bacteria

compounds

analysis

Peptides

Peptides

Gnotobiotic

Gnotobiotic

Gnotobiotic

Gnotobiotic

model

Artemia

Artemia

test

test

Artemia

systems

system

system

system

Qual/Quant

Quantitative

Biochemical

Biochemical

Host gene

Host gene

Performance

Performance

Fish and shellfish

Fish and shellfish

Fish and shellfish

Fish and shellfish

analysis of

analysis of

analysis

analysis

expression

expression

larvae validation

larvae validation

larvae validation

larvae validation

the bacterial

the bacterial

analysis

analysis

e.g.

e.g.

antimicrobial substances

antimicrobial substances

composition

community

Marker

Marker

genes

genes


How to study host microbial interactions

How to study host-microbial interactions?

host

host

simplification

MC

environment

known micro-organisms

reality?

complex

gnotobiotic


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

Gnotobiotic sea bass test system

to study host-microbial interactions

Effect of light stress on survival of xenic sea bass larvae

120

110

dark

100

axenic

light

90

80

70

dark

urvival (%)

60

50

xenic

40

light

s

30

20

10

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

time

(day)

Axenic sea bass larvae are not sensitive to light stress


21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

  • UGent Aquaculture R&D Consortium(partners in the study of microbial management systems)

  • Faculty of Bioscience Engineering

  • Animal Production - P. Sorgeloos en P. Bossier Biochemical and Microbial Technology – W. Verstraete and N. Boon

  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

  • Morphology – W. Van den Broeck Pathology, Bacteriology and Poultry Diseases – A. Decostere Virology, Parasitology and Immunology – H. Nauwynck

  • Faculty of Sciences

  • Biochemistry, Physiology and Microbiology – P. Vandamme and P. De VosBiology – D. Adriaens and W. Vijverman Molecular Genetics – D. Inzé, Frank Van Breusegem


  • 21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

    • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

    • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

    • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding

    • more microbial management for more sustainable production


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    70 % of all farmed fish are produced in ponds

    Bio flocs

    What is the role of the microflora ?

    Recent documentation:30 % N contribution from bio flocs !


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

    • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

    • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

    • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding

    • more microbial management for more sustainable production

    • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    DISEASE

    TREATMENT

    (antibiotics)

    DISEASE PREVENTION

    environment

    consumer


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    DISEASE

    CONTROL

    preventive measures

    GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    ° water quality

    ° aeration

    ° seed

    ° stress

    ° feeds

    ° effluent treatment


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    SINGLE AND DUAL EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF SPECIFIC PATHOGEN-FREE Litopenaeus vannamei SHRIMP WITH WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS AND VIBRIO SPECIES

    PhD Le Hong Phuoc


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    Vibrios

    Vibrios

    Vibrios

    Vibrios

    Unstressed shrimp

    Stressed shrimp

    Non-compromised shrimp

    WSSV-compromised shrimp

    No mortality

    No mortality

    Mortality

    Mortality

    Role of stress factors

    Role of other pathogens

    Polymicrobial diseases in the field


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    • Conclusions & Recommendations for Shrimp Farms

      • use SPF strains (also in research)

      • apply strict biosecurity

      • control vibriosis


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

    • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

    • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

    • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding

    • more microbial management for more sustainable production

    • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control

    • more attention for integration of restocking activities with fisheries management


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    RESTOCKING

    • juvenile fitness

    • releasing strategies

    • impact on wild stocks


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

    • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

    • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

    • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding

    • more attention for integration of restocking activities with fisheries management

    • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control

    • more microbial management for more sustainable production

    • more polyculture systems especially in coastal and off-shore farms, integrating different niches of the ecosystem (fish, shellfish and seaweeds) and maximizing nutrient recycling


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    BUSINESS aquaculture

    FOOD aquaculture


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    FED aquaculture

    EXTRACTIVE aquaculture

    nutrient recycling


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    BUSINESS aquaculture

    intensify

    polyculture

    FOOD aquaculture


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    • Integrated farming of marine fish (cage),

    • seaweeds and molluscs (longlines & lantern nets)


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    > 5 km


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

    • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets

    • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication

    • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding

    • more attention for integration of restocking activities with fisheries management

    • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control

    • more microbial management for more sustainable production

    • more polyculture systems especially in coastal and off-shore farms, integrating different niches of the ecosystem (fish, shellfish and seaweeds) and maximizing nutrient recycling

    • full independence from fisheries stocks for lipid and protein ingredients in aquatic feeds


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    The fish meal / fish oil contradiction


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN / LIPID SOURCES

    • plant protein

      • soybean

      • corn gluten

      • wheat

      • oats

      • barley

    human health concern?

    • rendered products

      • meat, bone & blood meal

      • poultry by-products meal

    • single-cell protein /oil

    • recovery protein /oil

      • seafood processing

      • fisheries by-catch

    disease risks?


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    SUBSTITUTION / SUPPLEMENTATION

    • essential amino acids

    • n-3 and n-6 fatty acids

    • microbial products genetically-engineered ?


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    antibiotics

    pesticides

    quality

    concerns


    Meer omega 3 in dieet meer vis

    Meer omega-3 in dieet = meer vis

    Positiveto health

    Negativeto health

    omega-3 FA(EPA&DHA)

    Fish consumption

    Nutritional-toxicological conflict

    contaminants

    Mercury

    PCBs

    Dioxins

    Risico met visserij NIET met aquacultuur


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    ASEM Aquaculture Platform

    China AquaFishNet

    China Societyof Fisheries

    ViFINET

    NACA

    AsianFisheriesSociety


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    CERTIFICATION

    • FAO/NACA Aquaculture certification

      • facilitated contacts between the FAO/NACA initiative and GAA, EUREPGAP, Thai Marine Shrimp Association…

    • Thailand Department of Fisheries & Thai Frozen Foods Association

      • offered networking services and contactsfor info session on Thai quality assurance programs at Seafood Brussels 2007 and 2008

    • Pangasius farming in Vietnam – export to Europe

      • facilitated contacts between NACA, WWF Vietnam’s PAD, Research Institute of Aquaculture nr 2, Can Tho University and Marine Harvest Pieters


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    CHINA

    Hanoi

    Haiphong

    LAOS

    COMPETE

    COOPERATE

    Hue

    CAMBODIA

    Nha Trang

    Ho Chi Minh City

    Can Tho

    IMPORTANCE OF NETWORKING

    VIFINET

    • what is VIFINET

      • Vietnamese Fisheries and Aquaculture Institutes Network

      • establishment in 2005 facilitated by major ASEM Aquaculture Platform members (Ghent, Wageningen & Trondheim Universities)

      • unites 4 universities and 4 research institutes

    • objective

      • to promote collaboration among aquaculture education and research institutions in Vietnam

    • activities related to VIFINET

      • Best Management Practice in shrimp culture

      • Training Facility project (Belgian Embassy funding)

      • WAS Asian-Pacific Chapter conference ’07 in Hanoi

      • Pangasius Aquaculture Dialogue (PAD) by WWF & NACA


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    IMPORTANCE OF NETWORKING

    China AquaFishNet

    • what is China AquaFishNet

      • consortium of leading 5 Chinese universities and 5 research institutes

      • establishment facilitated by major ASEM Aquaculture Platform members (Ghent, Wageningen & Trondheim Universities)

    • objective

      • to promote collaborationamong aquaculture educationand research institutions in China

    • planned activities

      • exchange of students and staff between the China and Europe (practical training and/or course modules)

      • develop a priority list of joint research topics (→ joint FP7 projects)

      • make bilateral agreements for PhD study collaboration


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    75% = water


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    Training & extension


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    Mozambique, VAIS

    Kenya, VLIR EI


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    Crater Lakes in W-Uganda salt (extraction) lakes freshwater lakes


    21st century aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge based biotechnology

    www.aquaculture.ugent.be


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