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21st Century Aquaculture from empirical farming towards a knowledge-based biotechnology. Patrick Sorgeloos. Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center. ARC alumni - September 17, 2009. FISH: source of proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, minerals, vitamins,. Oceans are deserts

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slide1

21st Century Aquaculturefrom empirical farming towards a knowledge-based biotechnology

Patrick Sorgeloos

Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center

ARC alumni - September 17, 2009

slide4

Oceans are deserts

  • 60% of fishery resources over-fished or at risk !

from FAO

slide10

Overview of different phases in aquaculture productions

wild

wild

wild

wild

eggs

sperm

embryos

fry

postlarvae

seed

broodstock

spawners

stocking

ongrowing

market

larvae

market

selective breeding

domestication

slide11

Asia, esp. China – long history large production

Recent developments - successful new industry

FOOD aquaculture

BUSINESS aquaculture

slide12

biology

technology

profitability

BUSINESS aquaculture

slide14

Aquaculture Systems: ponds

Courtesy Nutreco

Photo Azim

Courtesy Harache

Photo Schneider

slide16

Aquaculture Systems: indoor systems

Photo Schneider

Photo Eding

Photo Schrama

Photo Schneider

slide18

Pangasius catfish in Vietnam

> 1,000,000 tons/year

slide19

Pangasius farming in Vietnam

surface area production yield

slide20

Taiwan

Ecuador

Pond farming of Penaeid shrimp

slide21

annual production yiels

Chinese mitten crabEriocheir sinensis

slide22

Scallop farming

Mussel farming

slide23

Red and brown

algae farming in China

slide24

fish 30 mT (55% in value)

molluscs 14 mT (15 % in value)

crustaceans 4 mT (20% in value)

seaweeds 14 mT (10% in value)

slide25

aquaculture production by species & environment

Freshwater

27.8 Mt

Marine

31.2 Mt

Brackish

3.8Mt

from FAO

global aquatic production
Global Aquatic Production

Total

Fisheries

Aquaculture

34.1% or

42.8 million ton

in 2001

9.7%

Human Consumption of Fish:

1990: 13 kg / person

2000: >16 kg / person

48 % in 2005 or >60 million ton

slide29

Trade flows of aquatic products into Europe

in US$ millions, c.i.f.; averages for 2004–06

Europe imports >60 % of its aquatic foodstuffs

from FAO

slide30

“Aquaculture is probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, and currently accounts for almost 50% of the world’s food fish and is perceived as having the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for aquatic food.”

“Given the projected population growth over the next two decades, it is estimated that by 2030 at least an additional 40 million tons/year of aquatic food will be required to maintain the current per caput consumption.”

slide31

INCREASED

MARKET

DEMAND

stagnant

capture

fisheries

environmental problems?

human health risks?

sustainable?

more responsible farming !

INCREASED

aquaculture

production

slide32

Priorities for future aquaculture:

from empiricial farming

towards

a knowledge-based bio-industry

Aquaculture:the blue biotechnology of the future ?

slide33

Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets
slide34

Cobia

Species selection, biodiversity issues, market demands, etc.

slide35

herbivorous species diversification

highly recommended

! market demands ?

! health risks ?

slide36

Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets
  • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication
slide37

Overview of different phases in aquaculture productions

wild

wild

wild

wild

eggs

sperm

embryos

fry

postlarvae

seed

broodstock

spawners

stocking

ongrowing

market

larvae

hatchery

- algae

- rotifers

- artemia

extensive

intensive

selective breeding

domestication

slide38

Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets
  • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication
  • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding
slide39

wild stock

genetic

variation

  • disease resistance
  • growth rate
  • size / quality
  • feed conversion
  • fecundity
  • ease of domestication

domesticated

stock

genetic improvement

breeding

objectives

breeding program

marine fish larviculture in the mediterranean
annual production of 1 billion fry

production cost 15 Euro cents a piece

average survival 20 % by day 60

low survival = critical bottleneck for future cost efficiency and sustainability of the industry

microbial interference considered to be the main culprit

no selected breeds available yet

Marine fish larviculture in the Mediterranean
slide41

disease free

disease resistant

Predictable & cost-effective availability of high-qualityfry, fingerlings, postlarvae, seed, spores, ...

certified seed

slide42

Larviculture research

Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Turbot

Penaeid shrimp

Sea bass

Oyster veliger

Mud crab : Scylla spp.

slide43

The magic of the green-water technique

direct food source

light shading

microbial control

water quality conditioning

trigger digestive system

supply of micro-nutrients &

immunostimulants

slide46

Need for innovative microbial management systems

Heat-shock proteins

Micro Algae /Feeds

Feeds

Pathogenic

Pathogenic

Quorum sensing

Quorum sensing

Antimicrobial

Antimicrobial

Probiotic bacteria

Probiotic bacteria

Immunostimulants

Immunostimulants

bacteria

bacteria

compounds

analysis

Peptides

Peptides

Gnotobiotic

Gnotobiotic

Gnotobiotic

Gnotobiotic

model

Artemia

Artemia

test

test

Artemia

systems

system

system

system

Qual/Quant

Quantitative

Biochemical

Biochemical

Host gene

Host gene

Performance

Performance

Fish and shellfish

Fish and shellfish

Fish and shellfish

Fish and shellfish

analysis of

analysis of

analysis

analysis

expression

expression

larvae validation

larvae validation

larvae validation

larvae validation

the bacterial

the bacterial

analysis

analysis

e.g.

e.g.

antimicrobial substances

antimicrobial substances

composition

community

Marker

Marker

genes

genes

how to study host microbial interactions
How to study host-microbial interactions?

host

host

simplification

MC

environment

known micro-organisms

reality?

complex

gnotobiotic

slide48

Gnotobiotic sea bass test system

to study host-microbial interactions

Effect of light stress on survival of xenic sea bass larvae

120

110

dark

100

axenic

light

90

80

70

dark

urvival (%)

60

50

xenic

40

light

s

30

20

10

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

time

(day)

Axenic sea bass larvae are not sensitive to light stress

slide49

UGent Aquaculture R&D Consortium(partners in the study of microbial management systems)

  • Faculty of Bioscience Engineering
  • Animal Production - P. Sorgeloos en P. Bossier Biochemical and Microbial Technology – W. Verstraete and N. Boon
  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
  • Morphology – W. Van den Broeck Pathology, Bacteriology and Poultry Diseases – A. Decostere Virology, Parasitology and Immunology – H. Nauwynck
  • Faculty of Sciences
  • Biochemistry, Physiology and Microbiology – P. Vandamme and P. De VosBiology – D. Adriaens and W. Vijverman Molecular Genetics – D. Inzé, Frank Van Breusegem
slide51

Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets
  • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication
  • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding
  • more microbial management for more sustainable production
slide52

70 % of all farmed fish are produced in ponds

Bio flocs

What is the role of the microflora ?

Recent documentation:30 % N contribution from bio flocs !

slide53

Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets
  • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication
  • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding
  • more microbial management for more sustainable production
  • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control
slide54

DISEASE

TREATMENT

(antibiotics)

DISEASE PREVENTION

environment

consumer

slide55

DISEASE

CONTROL

preventive measures

GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

° water quality

° aeration

° seed

° stress

° feeds

° effluent treatment

slide56

SINGLE AND DUAL EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF SPECIFIC PATHOGEN-FREE Litopenaeus vannamei SHRIMP WITH WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS AND VIBRIO SPECIES

PhD Le Hong Phuoc

slide57

Vibrios

Vibrios

Vibrios

Vibrios

Unstressed shrimp

Stressed shrimp

Non-compromised shrimp

WSSV-compromised shrimp

No mortality

No mortality

Mortality

Mortality

Role of stress factors

Role of other pathogens

Polymicrobial diseases in the field

slide58

Conclusions & Recommendations for Shrimp Farms

        • use SPF strains (also in research)
        • apply strict biosecurity
        • control vibriosis
slide59

Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets
  • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication
  • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding
  • more microbial management for more sustainable production
  • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control
  • more attention for integration of restocking activities with fisheries management
slide60

RESTOCKING

  • juvenile fitness
  • releasing strategies
  • impact on wild stocks
slide61

Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets
  • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication
  • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding
  • more attention for integration of restocking activities with fisheries management
  • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control
  • more microbial management for more sustainable production
  • more polyculture systems especially in coastal and off-shore farms, integrating different niches of the ecosystem (fish, shellfish and seaweeds) and maximizing nutrient recycling
slide62

BUSINESS aquaculture

FOOD aquaculture

slide63

FED aquaculture

EXTRACTIVE aquaculture

nutrient recycling

slide66

BUSINESS aquaculture

intensify

polyculture

FOOD aquaculture

slide68

Integrated farming of marine fish (cage),

  • seaweeds and molluscs (longlines & lantern nets)
slide71

Priorities for future aquaculture: from an empiricial towards a knowledge-based bio-industry

  • better targeted selection of species for either mass production or for niche markets
  • complete independence from natural stocks through domestication
  • development of more efficient stocks through selective breeding
  • more attention for integration of restocking activities with fisheries management
  • better understanding of immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to develop appropriate measures for disease prevention and/or control
  • more microbial management for more sustainable production
  • more polyculture systems especially in coastal and off-shore farms, integrating different niches of the ecosystem (fish, shellfish and seaweeds) and maximizing nutrient recycling
  • full independence from fisheries stocks for lipid and protein ingredients in aquatic feeds
slide73

ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN / LIPID SOURCES

  • plant protein
    • soybean
    • corn gluten
    • wheat
    • oats
    • barley

human health concern?

  • rendered products
    • meat, bone & blood meal
    • poultry by-products meal
  • single-cell protein /oil
  • recovery protein /oil
    • seafood processing
    • fisheries by-catch

disease risks?

slide74

SUBSTITUTION / SUPPLEMENTATION

  • essential amino acids
  • n-3 and n-6 fatty acids
  • microbial products genetically-engineered ?
slide75

antibiotics

pesticides

quality

concerns

meer omega 3 in dieet meer vis
Meer omega-3 in dieet = meer vis

Positiveto health

Negativeto health

omega-3 FA(EPA&DHA)

Fish consumption

Nutritional-toxicological conflict

contaminants

Mercury

PCBs

Dioxins

Risico met visserij NIET met aquacultuur

slide80

ASEM Aquaculture Platform

China AquaFishNet

China Societyof Fisheries

ViFINET

NACA

AsianFisheriesSociety

slide81

CERTIFICATION

  • FAO/NACA Aquaculture certification
    • facilitated contacts between the FAO/NACA initiative and GAA, EUREPGAP, Thai Marine Shrimp Association…
  • Thailand Department of Fisheries & Thai Frozen Foods Association
    • offered networking services and contactsfor info session on Thai quality assurance programs at Seafood Brussels 2007 and 2008
  • Pangasius farming in Vietnam – export to Europe
    • facilitated contacts between NACA, WWF Vietnam’s PAD, Research Institute of Aquaculture nr 2, Can Tho University and Marine Harvest Pieters
slide82

CHINA

Hanoi

Haiphong

LAOS

COMPETE

COOPERATE

Hue

CAMBODIA

Nha Trang

Ho Chi Minh City

Can Tho

IMPORTANCE OF NETWORKING

VIFINET

  • what is VIFINET
    • Vietnamese Fisheries and Aquaculture Institutes Network
    • establishment in 2005 facilitated by major ASEM Aquaculture Platform members (Ghent, Wageningen & Trondheim Universities)
    • unites 4 universities and 4 research institutes
  • objective
    • to promote collaboration among aquaculture education and research institutions in Vietnam
  • activities related to VIFINET
    • Best Management Practice in shrimp culture
    • Training Facility project (Belgian Embassy funding)
    • WAS Asian-Pacific Chapter conference ’07 in Hanoi
    • Pangasius Aquaculture Dialogue (PAD) by WWF & NACA
slide83

IMPORTANCE OF NETWORKING

China AquaFishNet

  • what is China AquaFishNet
    • consortium of leading 5 Chinese universities and 5 research institutes
    • establishment facilitated by major ASEM Aquaculture Platform members (Ghent, Wageningen & Trondheim Universities)
  • objective
    • to promote collaborationamong aquaculture educationand research institutions in China
  • planned activities
    • exchange of students and staff between the China and Europe (practical training and/or course modules)
    • develop a priority list of joint research topics (→ joint FP7 projects)
    • make bilateral agreements for PhD study collaboration
slide86

Mozambique, VAIS

Kenya, VLIR EI

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