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溶 液 中 的 化 学 平 衡 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第三章. 溶 液 中 的 化 学 平 衡.  酸碱平衡  沉淀溶解平衡  配位平衡  电化学平衡(氧化还原平衡) —— 溶液中的“四大化学平衡”. 引言 —— 电解质的概念 * 溶液中能传导电流的物质叫电解质。 * 常见的电解质有: 酸、碱、盐。 * 它们在溶液中之所以能导电,是因为它们在水溶液中发生了电离,产生正、负离子。在溶液中能自由移动的带电离子,是电流的载体。 M + A - = M + + A -. 根据电解质在溶液中电离的程度,可将电解质分类: 强电解质 :在溶液中全部电离成离子,主要有:

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溶 液 中 的 化 学 平 衡

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4750942


4750942

*

*

*

M+A- = M+ + A-


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HClO4 HCl HNO3

KOH NaOH Ba(OH)2

NaCl KCl

H2S H2CO3 HCN

NH3 Al(OH)3 Ca(OH)2

ZnCl2 CdCl2 HgCl2 (


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1

1

HAc + H2O H3O+ + Ac-

HAc H+ + Ac-

C mol / L [ ]


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NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-

HAc H+ + Ac-

* KaKb

* p71)

*


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(2)

H A H+ + A-

[HA]0 0 0

(1- )[HA]0[HA]0 [HA]0

Ka << 10-4 , [HA] > 0.1, 1- 1


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MOH M+ + OH -


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2

H2S

H2S H+ + HS-

HS-H+ + S2-

H2S 2H+ + S2-

[H+]2 [ S2-]

Ka = = Ka1 Ka2

[H2S]


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  • H+[H+]

  • H2S

  • p74 3-2

  • nn


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3pH

H2O H+ + OH-

[H+][OH-] = 55.56 K = Kw

298K

[H+] = 1.00410-7 [OH-] = 1.00410-7

Kw = 1.00410-7 1.00410-7 = 1.00 10-14

Kw [H+] [OH-] Kw


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pH

pH = - lg [H+]

pOH = - lg [OH-]

pKw = - lg Kw

[H+][OH-] = Kw = 1.00 10-14

pH + pOH = p Kw = 14

NaCl pH = pOH = 7.0

HCl: [H+] > 10-7, [OH-] < 10-7, pH < 7.0

NaOH [OH-] > 10-7, [H+] < 10-7, pH >7.0


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1923BronstedLowry)

HAH+ + A-

HAAAHA


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HCl H+ + Cl-

HSO4- H+ + SO4-

NH4+ H+ + NH3

[Al(H2O)6]3+ H+ + [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+

NH3 H+ + NH2

H2O + HCl H3O + + Cl -

NH3 OH- + NH4+

HSO4- NH3


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*

HClCl-

HAcAc-

OH-H2O

HClHAc


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*

1+ 2 1+ 2

HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-

1 2 2 1

HAc + H2O H3O+ + Ac-

1 2 2 1

*


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OH-H+OH-H+

NaAc + H2O HAc + NaOH


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1

NaAc Na+ + Ac-

H2O OH-+ H+

+

HAc

Ac- + H2O HAc + OH-


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2

Na2CO3

CO32- + H2O HCO3- + OH-

HCO3- + H2O H2CO3 + OH-

Kh1 >> Kh2 ,


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3pH

H =

100%

pHpH


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4

* .

*

* OH-H+pHKCNFeCl3


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1


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2

pH

+HAc + NaAc

+NH3 + NH4Cl


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pH

HAc+NaAc

cHAccNaAc

HAc H+ + Ac-

c- x c x c + x c


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pKa(14-pKb)pHc/cpH


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