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PART II COGNITIONS & THE SELF. PERSONALITY UNITS AND COURSE STRUCTURE. Stable. Variable. Inner, private, subjective. 2. Cognition & Self e.g. self-concept, beliefs, ideals Major theorists: Rogers, Kelly. 3. Motivation e.g. motives, defenses Major theorists: Freud, McClelland.

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PART II COGNITIONS & THE SELF

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Part ii cognitions the self

PART II

COGNITIONS

& THE SELF


Part ii cognitions the self

PERSONALITY UNITS AND COURSE STRUCTURE

Stable

Variable

Inner,

private,

subjective

2. Cognition

& Self

e.g. self-concept,

beliefs, ideals

Major theorists:

Rogers, Kelly

3. Motivation

e.g. motives,

defenses

Major theorists:

Freud, McClelland

Outer,

public,

objective

1. Traits &

Temperament

e.g. extraversion,

neuroticism

Major theorists:

Jung, Eysenck,

Gray

4. Social Context

e.g., culture,

ethnicity, power,

gender

Major theorists:

Markus, Stewart


Part ii cognitions the self

  • KEY DEFINITIONS

  • BELIEFS

  • ATTITUDES

  • VALUES

  • PROTOTYPES

  • STEREOTYPES


Part ii cognitions the self

  • KEY DEFINITIONS COTINUED..

  • SCHEMAS (SELF- & OTHER-)

  • ATTRIBUTIONS

  • SCRIPTS

  • AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC

  • SOCIAL COGNITION


Part ii cognitions the self

COGNITIVE REVOLUTION


George kelly s theory of personal constructs

George Kelly’s Theory ofPersonal Constructs

GEORGE KELLY

(1905-1967)


What is a construct

What is a construct?

  • are cognitions that people create and actively impose on the world to make sense out of it.

  • are personal; representing the idiosyncratic ways that people sort out the people and events they encounter.

  • evolve over time and across repeated experiences.


Part ii cognitions the self

Personal constructs are bipolar

BAD

GOOD

LOUD

QUIET

DISGUSTING

LOVELY


A submerged pole is similar to which freudian concepts

‘A submerged pole’ is similar to which Freudian concepts?


What else are personal constructs

What else are personal constructs?

  • Bipolar

  • Emergent pole/Implicit pole

  • Dichotomous

  • Both conscious and unconscious


Kelly s fundamental postulate

Kelly’s Fundamental Postulate

“People’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings (their personalities) are determined by the constructs they use to anticipate or predict events”


Part ii cognitions the self

Using Constructs in Life...

Hypothesize(implicitly) that a construct will fit an event.

Test the hypothesis by applying the construct and predicting a consequence.

Construct confirmed or disconfirmed?

Does the construct have predictive efficiency?


Our personalities are defined by the type of constructs we have

Our personalities are defined by the type of constructs we have.


Constructive alternativism

Constructive Alternativism

  • There are infinite number of ways to construe events.

  • We are capable of combining, recombining, and even totally revising our constructions in an ongoing cycle of meaning-making.


Characteristics of personal constructs range of convenience

Characteristics of Personal Constructs:Range of convenience

  • Set of events for which a construct is useful.

  • Range of Convenience (Is it limited in scope or useful across many situations?)


Characteristics of personal constructs permeability

Characteristics of Personal Constructs:Permeability

  • The degree to which a construct is able to incorporate new experiences.


Our personalities are defined by the type of constructs we have and how we operate them

Our personalities are defined by the type of constructs we have and how we operate them.

Individual differences exist in terms of

  • permeability

  • consistency

  • comprehensiveness

  • hierarchy


Part ii cognitions the self

Personal constructs fit together differently...

BAD

GOOD

Intelligent

Interesting

Stupid

Materialistic

Critical

Deep

Talkative

Energetic

Naïve

Ignorant

Shallow

Cruel


Part ii cognitions the self

John

Dan

GOOD vs.

BAD

GOOD vs.

BAD

Generous vs. stingy

Loving vs. unloving

Friendly vs. unfriendly

Accepting vs. rejecting

Accepting vs. rejecting

Generous vs. stingy


Part ii cognitions the self

We have different views and ways of doing things...

Cognitions (beliefs, attitudes, values, self/other schemas) constitute the information that guides people’s behavior


Hey i like your constructs

Hey…..I like your constructs!


Part ii cognitions the self

People are like scientists….

“Humans are intuitive scientist: have theories (constructs)about themselves and others, formulate hypothesis based on these theories, gather info to test these hypothesis, and then confirm/revise these theories”


Part ii cognitions the self

MEASUREMENT OF PERSONAL CONSTRUCTS:

ROLE REPERTORY TEST


Part ii cognitions the self

  • COGNITIVE STYLES:

    • NEED FOR COGNITION(Cacciopo & Petty, 1982)

    • Tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking (cognitive persistence, cognitive confidence, cognitive complexity)

    • INTEGRATIVE COMPLEXITY (Tetlock, 1979)

    • Ability to deal with and integrate multiple perspectives, hypothetical situations, and new interpretations


Application of kelly s work lazarus appraisal and stress

Application of Kelly’s work Lazarus: Appraisal and Stress


Lazarus appraisal and stress

Lazarus: Appraisal and Stress

1) Primary appraisal: Process of perceiving an impending threat

2)Secondary appraisal: Process of determining what should be done (of many) to deal with threat

3)Coping: Effort to do what’s been chosen as best way to handle threat

4)Reappraisal: Reinterpret the meaning of events, when occurring or following the event


Our cognitions impact our behavior well being and even our health

Our cognitions impact our behavior, well-being, and even, our health

  • Reformulated learned helplessness theory (Abramson, Selgiman, & Teasdale, 1978)

  • Finding positive meaning (reappraising) (Affleck & Tennen, 1996)

  • Health outcomes from finding meaning (Folkman, Chesney, et al, 1996)


Part ii cognitions the self

Applying one’s personal constructs to life decisions ….

What do I want to major in?

Who can help me with this problem?

Do I want to date that person?

How do I want to think about that situation?

Do I want to take that class?

What do I really want out of life?


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