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Chapter 20: Northern Eurasia 1500-1800 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 20: Northern Eurasia 1500-1800. Japan: Similarities to China and Russia Military conflicts (internal and external) Political growth and strengthening Expanded commercial and cultural contacts. Japan: Differences with China and Russia culturally homogenous population - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 20: Northern Eurasia 1500-1800

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Chapter 20: Northern Eurasia 1500-1800

  • Japan: Similarities to China and Russia

    • Military conflicts (internal and external)

    • Political growth and strengthening

    • Expanded commercial and cultural contacts

  • Japan: Differences with China and Russia

    • culturally homogenous population

    • natural boundaries

    • process of political unification much shorter

    • responses to European contacts


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When Japan’s political unity disintegrated in the 12th century, the country was controlled by:

  • Numerous warlords named daimyo (DIE-mee-oh)

  • Each had his own castle town, a small bureaucracy, and an army of warriors called samurai

  • daimyo pledged allegiance to the military leader, the shogun, as well as the emperor, but neither had real political power.

  • Warfare among the daimyo was common, leading to civil wars.

  • The most successful of these warlords was Hideyoshi.


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In 1592 after years of civil war, Hideyoshi

  • Launched an invasion of the Asian mainland

  • He intended to conquer Korea and China

  • Korea, influenced in many ways by China, employed their military technology, including “turtle boats”.

  • Hideyoshi was able to get past Korea into the Chinese mainland, but after his death was pushed back out.


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One of the consequences of Japanese aggression was

  • Korea was severely devastated by the invasion.

  • The most dramatic consequences were in China—battles in Manchuria allowed Manchu opposition to grow stronger and eventually take possession of Beijing.


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After the period of civil wars ended in Japan

  • A more centralized government was formed

  • A new shogun named Tokugawa established a military government known as the Tokugawa Shogunate.

  • They created a new capital at Edo (now Tokyo)

  • Trade promoted economic development, which is what the Tokugawa government is known for.


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Japanese manufacturers in the 1600s and 1700s made beautiful

  • Pottery (mostly porcelain)

Despite government efforts to curtail merchant independence, Japanese merchants:

  • Amassed large family fortunes

  • The samurais well-being was threatened as they became dependent customers of merchants goods. That is why the gov’t tried to regulate the merchants—unsuccessfully.


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European contact with Japan resulted in “opportunities and problems” such as

  • Opportunities:

    • Japan gained Western weapons, launching the first East Asian “gunpowder revolution”

    • New trade with merchants from Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands and England (gov’t closely regulated)

  • Problems:

    • Hostility eventually surrounded the Christian presence in Japan, including violent persecution against Christians.


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Japanese response to the Society of Jesus or the Jesuits was

  • Mixed response: many ordinary Japanese found the religion appealing, but many of the elite thought it disruptive and foreign

  • Many converted, and a daimyo gave a port city to the Jesuits, many required conversion of Christianity for their subjects.


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Eventually, what was Japan’s response to European trade and Christian influence?

  • The fractious politics of Japan plus the larger suspicion about Europe’s larger goal in Japan caused the shogun to be hostile toward Christians.

  • A decree ordered that Christians were overthrowing truth, changing the gov’t, and seizing land caused many Christians to leave, but others to go underground.

  • Violent persecutions of Christians began

  • Then in the middle 1600s more decrees ended European trade, forced people to prove their Buddhist orthodoxy, and their loyalty to Japan.

  • Only the Dutch were allowed to trade, though it was limited.


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What factors led to Tokugawa Japan’s instability?

  • 1700s—population growth put a strain on well-developed lands

  • the shogunate’s inability to stabilize rice prices and halt the economic decline of the samurai

  • Tokugawa gov’t followed Confucian idea that agriculture should be basis of gov’t not merchants

  • Its decentralized gov’t limited its ability to regulate the merchants & actually stimulated their growth


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What was the fate of the samurai of the Forty-Seven Ronin incident?

  • 1701-1703, displays the change from a military gov’t to a civil one

  • They were allowed to commit ritual suicide


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Later Ming and Early Qing

  • Like Japan, China experienced civil wars and foreign wars after 1500, but on a larger scale

  • By 1800 China had an expanded economy, and many doubts regarding the importance of European trade and Christianity


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European visitors to Ming China in the 16th century were

  • Astonished at their imperial power, exquisite manufactures, and vast population.

  • They bought so much blue on white porcelain, all fine dishes became known as “china”


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During its decline, what was experienced by the Ming?

  • Climate change called the Little Ice Age in 17th century dropping temps leading to agricultural decline and famine

  • Declines in local populations resulted

  • Rapid urban growth in the trading economy, coupled with the influx of American silver caused inflation

  • Corruption in gov’t, workers’ strikes

  • Japanese attacks in late 1500s harmed the Ming and strengthened their opponents, the Manchus


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Which empire replaced the Ming Empire of China?

  • Qing Empire, headed by a Manchu family

  • The Qing/Manchus were a minority population among ethnic Chinese and had to adopt Chinese traditions eventually


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Although European enthusiasm for Chinese trade was high, how did the Chinese feel about Europeans?

  • The Chinese were much slower to embrace European trade—suspicion

Merchants from which country were the first to arrive in East Asia?

  • Portugal

  • Eventually expelled from the country, later allowed to trade. Spain and the Dutch were allowed to trade from Taiwan briefly.


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The VOC (Dutch East India Company) representatives gained the favor of the Chinese Emperor by

  • They performed the ritual of “kowtow”, which was an acknowledgment of the emperor’s moral superiority.

  • The visitor to the emperor hit his head on the floor repeatedly while crawling to the throne.


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What European organization was a transmitter of science and technology to China?

  • Society of Jesus, or Jesuits

  • Far more successful than in Japan (at least for now)

Who was Matteo Ricci?

  • A Jesuit missionary who introduced European technology to China

  • He was permitted to stay in China as a Western scholar


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The Qing Emperor’s desire for security of the northern border led to

  • An intense struggle with Russia

  • They feared an alliance between Russia and the Mongol state

What was the Treaty of Nerchinsk?

  • Fixed the northern border of China along the Amur River

  • the border has endured since then


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To gain converts, the Jesuits made what compromises?

  • They tolerated Confucian ancestor worship

  • Caused controversy between the Jesuits and their Catholic rivals in China—the Franciscans and Dominicans and between Jesuits and the pope.

  • Kangxi (emperor from 1662-1722) wrote the pope declaring his support for the Jesuits

  • Eventually Christians were persecuted rather than supported by the emperor


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During the Qing Empire, what new items or ideas did Europe gain from China?

  • An early form of inoculation

  • Wallpaper

  • Silk, porcelain, tea

  • Room dividers, painted fans, carved jade and ivory

  • Poetry—expressing political ideas that struck a chord with European intellectuals who were questioning their own political philosophies


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Europeans were permitted to trade only at

  • Canton


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What were Britain’s motives for becoming China’s biggest European trading partner?

  • China’s large population made it a potential market for European goods

  • Tea became a fashionable drink in Europe

  • They needed a new market after the loss of the American colonies

  • The desire to end the English trade deficit in China—they were pouring silver in to buy Chinese goods but weren’t selling anything to China


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What problem did the British face with Chinese markets that they called the “Canton System?”

  • China didn’t buy British goods

The British Macartney Mission was an attempt to

  • Persuade China to revise its trade system

  • 1792, Britain sent Lord George Macartney went to China with many scientists, artists, and translators to show the Qing how interested England was

  • Macartney refused to perform kowtow, and the Qing refused to revise the Canton trading system.


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Population growth in China in the 1700s led to

  • Severe environmental problems

  • Increased demands for building materials depleted the forests, which accelerated wind and water erosion, which increased flooding…

  • Dams were not maintained, and the Grand Canal was nearly unusable

  • The empire became too vast for the Qing and decline set in.


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The princes of Muscovy organized a movement of conquest and expansion against the

  • Golden Horde—Mongols had ruled Russia from 1200s to 1480

  • Under the Golden Horde Moscow had become the most important city.

Russian rulers were called:

  • Tsars (caesars)

  • They believed they were the 3rd Rome.


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The motivation for Russian expansion in the east was

  • Availability of fur pelts which provided revenue to access European technology

How did the growth of a centralized Russian Empire affect the peasants?

  • Peasants became serfs, people who were tied to the land

According to the Russian census of 1795, over half the population were

  • Serfs


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The greatest Romanov tsar was

  • Tsar Peter the Great

One result of the “Great Northern War” was

  • Russian access to the Baltic Sea

The new city that was to be Russia’s “window on the West” is

  • St. Petersburg, modeled after French buildings