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Hitchhiker’s Guide to exploration of Mathematics Universe

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### Hitchhiker’s Guide to exploration of Mathematics Universe

Guide: Dr. Josip Derado

Kennesaw State University

Thinking Out of the Box

- Magic Trick:

Move only one cup to arrange them so they are alternately full and empty

We need a … proof!

- A very old theorem:

There are infinitely many primes.

Euklid’s Proof

Assume there finitely many primes. Denote them p1, p2, …, pn. Consider the number

N= p1 p2 … pn+ 1

This N can not be divisible by any of pj. Hence N is a prime which is not in the list. This is a contradiction. Q.E.D.

Goldbach Conjecture

- Every even number larger than 2 can be represented as a sum of two primes

4 = 2 + 2

6 = 3 + 3

8 = 3 + 5

100 = ? + ?

Known to be true for all numbers less than

1200000000000000000,

that is 12 with 17 zeros following it.

Twin-PrimesConjecture

- Twin-primes are two prime numbers which difference is 2.

1 23 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

- Conjecture:

There are infinitely many twin-primes.

Arenstorf (2004) published a purported proof of the conjecture (Weisstein 2004). Unfortunately, a serious error was found in the proof. As a result, the paper was retracted and the twin prime conjecture remains fully open.

3 x + 1 Puzzle

- Start with any integer X.
- If X is even divide it by 2
- If X is odd then compute 3 X + 1
- Continue till you reach 1.
- 3 → 10 → 5 → 16 → 8 → 4 → 2 → 1

Try to start with 27.

Question: Do you always reach 1 no matter what is your starting number?

3 x + 1 Puzzle

- Known to be true up to

5 764 000 000 000 000 000

Hey that should be enough!

Nope.

Polya Conjecture counterexample: 906150257

Mertens Conjecture counterexample

> 100 000 000 000 000

Packaging Problems

- Sausages or no sausages
- Which formation of 6 circles needs lets space?

Sausages or …?

- 2D sausages better up to 6 than hexagonals
- 3D sausages better up to 56 than others
- 4D sausages better up to x than others
- x is unknown but < 100,000 and > 50,000
- 5D – 41D x is unknown but it is bigger then 50 billion
- 42D and on – sausages always the best

Moebius Strip Magic Trick

Cut the Moebius strip along the middle line as shown on the picture.

What do you get?

Then cut it not along the middle but closer to one side (1:2).

What do you get now?

Poincare Conjecture

- In topology

Poincare Conjecture

- Poincare Conjecture says:
- Every 3D object with no holes is spherelike.

Poincare Conjecture

- Proven by Grigori Perelman in 2003.
- Quiz: On the pictures below who is Poincare and who is Perelman?

Who wants to be a milionare?

- Poincare Conjecture was one of the 7 problems on the Clay Institute $1,000,000 list.
- The others are
- Millennium Prize Problems
- P versus NP
- The Hodge conjecture
- The Poincaré conjecture
- The Riemann hypothesis
- Yang–Mills existence and mass gap
- Navier–Stokes existence and smoothness
- The Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture

Who wants to be a milionare?

- Dr. Grigori Perelman rejected $1,000,000 award.
- Dr. Perelman also declined to accept Fields Medal.

So what did we learn?

- That a mug is a mug is a mug.

Let ‘s try!

- Instructions:
- TWist will be W
- TuRn will be R
- W WWWWWWW R W
- This tangle correspond to the number 7/8
- Now forget how we came to this number.
- Using only arithmetic try to get back to the zero tangle

R W W R W W R W W R W W R W W R W W R W W R W W

What Happens when you twist the zero tangle?

- What is it?
- ∞ - tangle
- Turn the ∞ - tangle. What do you get now?

Can we see infinity?

- Stereographic Projection

Is there a formula for …?

equation algebraic solution

Is there a formula for …?

equation algebraic solution

a looong one!!!

Galois(19), Abel(23): There is no formula for general quintic equation.

Rubick’s Cube

A puzzle which gives you a true insight into the world of Groups.

How do mathematician solve a Rubick’s cube?

Rubick’s Cube

- We want to solve not only

But also this

and this

That is why we start with

Oops Not that one actually this one ….

Symmetry Monster and Classification Theorem

- Classification Theorem of all simple groups is proven or … maybe not?
- The list of all simple groups is quite long and start with

Z/2Z which has only 2 elements

- Ends up with the Monster Group which has 808,017,424,794,512,875,886,459,904,961,710,757,005,754,368,000,000,000 elements
- However the proof is even longer over

10,000 pages in 500 articles.

- Is the proof valid?

Benford Law

- Benford\'s law, also called the first-digit law, states that in lists of numbers from many real-life sources of data, the leading digit is distributed in a specific, non-uniform way. According to this law, the first digit is 1 almost one third of the time, and larger digits occur as the leading digit with lower and lower frequency, to the point where 9 as a first digit occurs less than one time in twenty.
- Law has been proven 1996, By Ted Hill from Georgia Tech

Langton’s Ant Walk

http://www.math.ubc.ca/~cass/www/ant/ant.html

- Langton\'s Ant
- Langton\'s ant travels around in a grid of black or white squares. If she exits a square, its colour inverts. If she enters a black square, she turns right, and if she enters a white square, she turns left. If she starts out moving right on a blank grid, for example, here is how things go:

Langton’s Ant

Behavior of Langton’s ant is still a mystery

The truth is impossible

This sentence is false.

This is an ancient puzzle. It dates back to times of Charlesmagne:

Three jealous husbands with their wives must cross river in a boat with no boatman. The boat can carry only two of them at once. How can they all cross the river so that no wife is left in the company of other men without her husband being present? Both men and women may row. All husbands are jealous in extreme. They do not trust their unaccompanied wives to be with another man, even if the other man\'s wife is also present.

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