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12 th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation. Panel 6: Policy Initiatives in China Thursday November 17 (9:00-10:00). 12 th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation. Panel 6: Policy Initiatives in China.

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Panel 6 policy initiatives in china thursday november 17 9 00 10 00

12th Symposium on

Development and Social Transformation

Panel 6: Policy Initiatives in ChinaThursday November 17 (9:00-10:00)


12th Symposium on

Development and Social Transformation

Panel 6: Policy Initiatives in China

Towards Fulfillment of Universal Service Obligation in Telecommunications: Case Study of ChinaAnindita Sen Gupta


Universal Access” is defined as ensuring that telephone service

is within reasonable reach of everyone.

“Universal Service” is aimed at providing telecommunication

Services to all households in the country . It requires that

telephone service be AVAILABLE, ACCESSIBLEANDAFFORDABLE.

“Universal Service Obligation”(USO) is defined as the cost of

serving those customers whose monthly bills do not cover the cost

Of proving the service.


Need for universal service
NEED FOR UNIVERSAL SERVICE

  • Two major rationales for providing universal service

Due to concern for economic

development and spatial

inequality

For the sake of necessity.

Universal access is considered

a basic human right in “Global

Human Rights Manifesto.


STAGES OF UNIVERSAL SERVICE

Stage-I

Network

Establishment

Stage-II

Wide Geographic

reach

Stage III

Mass Market

Take up

Stage IV

Network

Competition

Stage V

Service to

individuals

China is in Stage II and III and progressing towards IV


FACTS ON DIGITAL DIVIDE IN CHINA

  • DIGITAL DIVIDE BROADLY IS BETWEEN:

  • China and other countries

  • Western, Central and Eastern Regions within China

  • Urban and Rural areas

FOCUS IS ON THE RURAL URBAN DIVIDE

*statistics from presentation of DG of Telecommunications of MII


PROMOTION OF RURAL ACCESS

STEP I

Rural Access

Project “telephone

reaching

every village

OVERALL

PLANNING

STEP III

STEP II

Increasing the number

of rural users and

penetration

Enriching and enlarging

the content and methods

of rural access


LESSONS FOR INDIA FROM THE MAIN MEASURES

  • ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM:

  • INVOLVEMENT OF PROVINICIAL ADMINISTRATION IN IMPLEMENTATION.

  • RESOURCE ASSIGNMENT

  • IT IS UNDER CONSIDERATION TO ASSIGN SPECTRUM ON PRIORITY TO OPERATORSUNDERTAKING RURAL PROJECTS.

  • IMPLEMENTATION

  • RELEVANT OPERATORS TO CARRY OUT ASSIGNED RURAL PROJECTS

  • TARIFF POLICY

  • ALLOW FLEXIBILITY IN RURAL TARIFFS

  • NATIONAL SUPPORT

  • ACTIVELY SEEK THE SUPPORT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN FUNDS POLICY AND TAXES AND APPROPRIATE CENTRAL FINANCING


12th Symposium on

Development and Social Transformation

Panel 6: Policy Initiatives in China

Population Policy in ChinaSunil Kumar Gulati


Population policy china lessons for india

POPULATION POLICY.…China, lessons for India

Presented

by

Kumar Sunil Gulati IAS

1999th Meeting on Effective, People friendly Population Policy Formulation

What meeting? Here we are!


Gr0wth rates 2001
GR0WTH RATES 2001

Don’t worry China , we will be Just there


POPULATION DENSITY

Choice is between

Many,’numerous’

heads..

FewREALHeads……


Do you know
Do You Know ?

  • Population of USA at 27.8 Cr is third in the world next to India .

  • India=Three USAs + Two Canadas and still with a Bangladesh to spare.

  • Density of Population in India is only 324 compared to 30 in USA and 3 in Canada !


Population policy
Population Policy

  • Ancient times War,Floods,droughts

  • Kings Ming Dynasty (1368-98) Used li-chia (ten headmen) to get ten Families (chia) to give labour and Taxes per fang(110 HHs)Pop 60.5 m ,5.7 per HH

  • Then it became ting, working Males per HH


Population policy1
Population Policy

  • Later 1740s Pao chia gave way to tuan-lin meaning Grouping and Drill(350m)

  • Malthus thought Pop goes by G.P. Nature by A.P . So it will be a disaster and Nature will intervene.

  • Dr Sun Yat-Sen &Mao said the more people the more Power of Nation















Massive health education campaign:

the messages tend to focus on the societal dangers of overpopulation


and the personal material benefits

of having only one child


Visionary statements were followed up by people friendly laws which were enforced no lip service
Visionary statements were followed up by people friendly laws, which were enforced..no Lip Service


Age at marriage
Age at Marriage

  • CHINA Urban M 25,F 23

  • RURAL M23, F 21

  • INDIA U/R age M21 F 18

  • But in China it was not always this, see the TIME LINE


Age at marriage1
Age at Marriage:

  • Historic Burden in China

  • Confucius (d 479BC) said ‘to die without offspring is one of the 3 gravest unfilial acts’

  • and Mo Ti also encouraged early marriage

  • Mao was also against Family Planning till 1973


Time line age at marriage
TIME LINE Age at Marriage

  • The marriage law of 1950 raised the age from 18 to 20 for males and 16 to 18 for females

  • CHINA(1973)Late marriage requirements are enforced M 25-28 yrs F23-25

  • Spacing rule of 4 years between first and second children.

  • 1981:Lowered marriage age laws to 20 and 22 years old to placate population.


Notice the flexibilty
Notice the FLEXIBILTY

  • 1984: Law passed allowing all peasants who consent to a late birth of their first child and to an extended birth interval of eight to ten years to have a second child in rural areas.

  • 1986 Laxness (more 2nd child permits granted) and loss of control after positive results of survey in 1985 when goals were almost met


Time line age at marriage1
TIME LINE Age at Marriage

INDIA

  • Historically Child Marriages

  • 1956 : Child Marriage Prohibition Act

    fixed Urban/Rural age at

    Males 21 Females 18

  • Since then Please all policy the same goes on…………We don’t care…


Goals for 2010 india national pop policy
Goals for 2010:INDIANational Pop. Policy

  • Promote delayed marriage for girls, not earlier than age 18 and preferably after 20 years of age

  • Address the unmet needs for basic reproductive and child health services, supply and infrastructure




Empowerment of women

Empowerment of Women 1949–1996

Empowerment comes from:

Political Democracy

Economic Prosperity

China has used the ECONOMIC Route successfully


Empowerment of women1

Empowerment of Women 1949–1996

Empowerment comes from:

Quality of LIFE Theory

China has used the ECONOMIC Route successfully


Real Dating 1949–1996 vs Smokey Dating

CHANGE or PERISH…..


12 1949–1996th Symposium on

Development and Social Transformation

Panel 6: Policy Initiatives in China

Mobile Number Portability in Hong KongP. Sudhakara Rao


What is mnp
What is MNP? 1949–1996

  • Mobile Number portability allows the Mobile Subscribers to retain their existing number when they change the subscription from one service provider to another.

  • It removes the major obstacle of freedom of choice of the customer and promotes the fair and efficient competition in the cellular industry.


Benefits of mnp
Benefits of MNP 1949–1996

  • Type 1 benefits: - Benefits accrue to subscribers who retain their telephone numbers

  • Type 2 benefits: - Benefits that arise out of competition between the operators

  • Type 3 benefits: - Cost savings to callers to porting users


Study of mobile number portability
Study of Mobile Number Portability 1949–1996

  • Feasibility Study and cost-benefit analysis of MNP for Mobile services in Hong Kong by consultant.

  • Results of cost-benefit analysis-

    Introduction of MNP would promote fair competition and create net benefits of HK $ 461 million in net present value over 10 years.


Implementation of mnp in hong kong
Implementation of MNP 1949–1996 in Hong Kong

  • Based on Consultant’s findings and cost-benefit analysis

  • Through extensive consultation/discussion with Industry

  • Direct Implementation of Distributed Database solution with FNO providing look up service on 1st March 1999

  • Set up of Implementation Task Force (ITF) of MNP to work on detailed technical specifications and Implementation schedule


Implementation of mnp in hong kong1
Implementation of MNP 1949–1996 in Hong Kong

  • Technical considerations-

  • Originating Network operator perform number translation or Dipping

  • FNO provide look up service for MNO or MNO self build GN database


Implementation of mnp in hong kong2
Implementation of MNP 1949–1996 in Hong Kong

  • Cost recovery principles-

  • FNO recovers the system set up costs, on going costs and per set up cost from MNO

  • Charges among MNO waived


Implementation of mnp in hong kong3
Implementation of MNP 1949–1996 in Hong Kong

  • Charging principles and arrangement-

  • DNO not allowed to charge porting customer

  • Database interrogation charge of FTNS regulated by OFTA

  • Per subscriber set up charge regulated by OFTA


Outcomes
Outcomes 1949–1996

  • Implemented successfully with in a time frame of 8.5 months

  • Huge demand for MNP from customers

  • Improved service quality and reduced tariff due to heightened competition

  • Mobile subscriber base exceeded 8 million representing 117% penetration of the population

  • No operator has yet dominate the market due to high subscriber churn facilitated by the MNP


Key learning for india
Key Learning for India 1949–1996

  • Experience of Hong Kong is very much useful

  • Conducting feasibility study and cost- benefit analysis

  • Involving Industry in finalizing the technical and functional standards

  • Set up of Implementation Task Force

  • Go for long term solution with out going for migration through short term solution


Key learning for india1
Key Learning for India 1949–1996

EXCEPTIONS

  • No prior experience of Number portability in Fixed Telecom services

  • Instead of Distributed Database model, centralized database service is ideal for Indian context


12 1949–1996th Symposium on

Development and Social Transformation

Panel 6: Policy Initiatives in China

Thursday, November 17 (9:00- 10:00)


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