Referencing conventions
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Referencing Conventions. Give credit to others for ideas and words Important feature of scholarship Vary from one field to another Require attention to detail Involves citations and reference lists. Acknowledgements. Use for general contributions to a document

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Referencing Conventions

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Referencing conventions

Referencing Conventions

  • Give credit to others for ideas and words

  • Important feature of scholarship

  • Vary from one field to another

  • Require attention to detail

  • Involves citations and reference lists

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • Use for general contributions to a document

  • Keep the acknowledgement short and direct

    Example: “I would like to thank John Smith for contributing

    his expertise in the area of hydraulic erosion to

    this report.”

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Footnotes

Footnotes

  • Use smaller font (8 or 9 point) to distinguish it from the text.

  • Use 1.5 to 2 inch horizontal line to separate footnote from text.

  • If more than 2 or 3 footnotes, number them; if only a few notes, use symbols such as * or †.

  • Avoid footnotes if using footers; if you must use them, leave 1/2 to 1 inch blank space between footnote and footer.

  • If possible, avoid more than one footnote per page.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Citations

Citations

  • Citations provide just enough information for a reader to find the source of an idea or quotation in a reference list.

  • Two common types of citations: Numbers or Author/Date

  • Using numbers saves space, but provides little information

    Designing a robust controller requires a nominal model of the controlled plant [1].

    [10, 11, 12] propose alternative models.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Author date citations

Author/Date Citations

  • Author/date system acknowledges authors’ ideas and words by last name(s) and year of publication.

  • This information is useful to someone who knows the literature in the field.

    Recent research (Black & Johnston 2002) supports this explanation.

    One expert claims that such groups “can be the forward-thinking, value-oriented, leading bodies we claim them to be” (Carver 1997).

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Citing sources

Citing Sources

  • Two or more publications by same author(s) in same year

    • (Chan 1999a; 1999b)

    • Use these letters after dates in reference list.

  • More than one author

    • Two authors: (Santos and Martin 2001)

    • Three authors: (Smith, Trinh, and Matsui 2001)for first reference. (Smith et al. 2001)for subsequent references

    • Four or more authors, et al. for all references: (McManus et al. 1998)

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Citing sources1

Citing Sources

More Than One Source Cited

  • Separate sources with semi-colons

    (Vincent 1998; Wong 2000; Young and Rawicz 2001)

  • If more than one source by the same author, give name once and then just dates

    (Carver 1986; 1992, 1995, 2000)

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Citing sources2

Citing Sources

Author Unknown

  • Substitute association, corporation, government agency, or other group.

  • If group name is in sentence, omit from citation.

    (NRC 1999)

    These estimates are based on data provided by the

    National Research Council (1999).

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Citing sources3

Citing Sources

Additional Information

  • To help readers find information, include volume, page, section, equation numbers, etc.

  • Separate this additional information from the date with a comma

    (Singh 2001, 55) to refer to a single page

    (Jones 2002, 63-65) to refer to more than one page

    (Xu 1999, sec 11.5) to refer to a relevant section

    (Peterson 2000, eq. 10) to refer to an equation

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Citing sources4

Citing Sources

Unnecessary Information.

  • Omit any information already given in the text.

    Saif first proposed this method in 1994 (45-51).

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Citing sources5

Citing Sources

Unconventional Sources

  • For interviews, personal letters, mail or e-mail exchanges, provide full name and nature and date of communication.

    (John Brown, letter to the author, July 2000)

    (Bill Smith, telephone interview, 10 Sept 1999)

    (Susan Eaglets, e-mail exchange, Aug-Sept 1998)

    (Aaron Bates, e-mail to the author, 4 Nov 2000)

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Citing sources6

Citing Sources

On-line Sources

  • Provide author/date, author, short title, or name of organization much as for text-based sources.

  • Only use URL as the citation if the item is not in your reference list and the site is stable.

  • If not including item in reference list, provide enough information for a reader to locate the information.

    (XYZ Inc., Thermistor Price List, accessed 22 May 1999 <http://www.xyz.nz/~thermistors/pricelist/>

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Placing citations in sentences

Placing Citations in Sentences

  • Whenever possible, place citations at the ends of sentences or before a punctuation mark.

  • Take care that citations are placed to clarify the points they support.

    Which of the following sentences is unclear?

    Researchers (Lightfoot and Jackson 1998)have reported findings that support this alternative explanation.

    Researchers have reported findings that support this alternative explanation (Lightfoot and Jackson 1998).

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Quoting sources

Quoting Sources

  • If you borrow even a phrase from another writer, acknowledge the source and use quotation marks.

  • Incorporate short quotations into your sentences:

    One of the requirements is that “Each bid must be accompanied by a certified check or cash to the among of nine thousand dollars” (Brantwurst 1989, 46).

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Quoting sources1

Quoting Sources

  • For a longer quote, omit quotation marks, single space, indent, and put citation after the period:

    Eric Brantwurst notes the following requirement:

    Each bid must be accompanied by a certified check or cash in the amount of nine thousand dollars. All certified checks must be drawn on some responsible bank doing business in the city of Vancouver, and shall be made payable to the City of Vancouver. (1989, 45)

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Quoting sources2

Quoting Sources

  • How to quote a passage that contains a quotation depends on whether or not the quotation is part of a sentence:

    As part of a sentence:

    Dagwood Brunster recalls an extraordinary engineering feat: “Sam Williams, the chief engineer, shrieked at all of the layabouts who were drinking coffee laced with rum, ‘Get off your duffs, or I’ll recall your engineering licenses, and throw you overboard to boot!’” (1999, 47).

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Quoting sources3

Quoting Sources

Quoting within an indented quotation

Dagwood Brunster recalls an extraordinary engineering feat:

Sam Williams, the chief engineer, shrieked at all of the layabouts who were drinking coffee laced with rum, “Get off your duffs, or I’ll recall your engineering licenses, and throw you overboard to boot. Move it before you lose it!” Shortly, they were all back at work, sweating profusely under the warm Arctic summer sun. (1999, 47–48)

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Quoting sources4

Quoting Sources

  • Sometimes you need to make changes to quotations so they match the grammar of your sentence.

  • Indicate changes by placing them in square brackets.

    As Humphrey’s explains, “Major investors [were] pleased with [the President’s] successor.”

  • On rare occasions, you may want to note an error in a quotation by using [sic].

    Before you use this convention, assess its affect [sic] on your readers.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists

Reference Lists

  • Prepare a reference list if you have more than a few sources in a document; otherwise consider using footnotes

  • Refer to the list as References in the Sciences and as a Bibliography in the Humanities

  • Create an alphabetical list by author’s last name for the author/date citation system

  • Organize a list according the numbers assigned to sources for a numbered citation system

  • Pay careful attention to details such as punctuation, capitalization, indentation, and the use of quotation marks and italics

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists1

Reference Lists

Two works by the same author (or by the same authors in exactly the same order)

Burnett, R.E. 1993. Conflict in collaborative decision making. Professional Communication: The Social Perspective, eds. N.R. Blyler and C. Thralls. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 144-162.

------. 1997. Collaboration in workplace communication. Chapter 5 in Technical Communication, 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 85-114.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists2

Reference Lists

Journal articles

Harney, M. 2000. Is technical writing an engineering discipline? IEEE Trans. Prof. Commun. 43:2, 210-212.

Markus, L. 1994. Electronic mail as the medium of managerial choice. Organization Sci. 5:4, 504.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists3

Reference Lists

Articles in collections other than journals

Barchilon, M.G. Sept. 1998. Technology’s impact on online résumés. Proc. Int. Professional Communication Conf. Quebec City, Que. Canada.

Burnett, R.E. 1993. Conflict in collaborative decision making. Professional Communication: The Social Perspective, eds. N.R. Blyler and C. Thralls. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 144-162.

Robey, D., M.C. Boudreau, and V.C. Storey. 1998. Looking before we leap. Electronic Commerce: Papers from the Third International Conference on Management of Networked Organizations, eds. G. St Amant and M. Amani. 275-290.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists4

Reference Lists

Unpublished conference papers

Divsalar, D. and J.K. Omura. June 1979. Performance of mismatched Viterbi receiver on satellite channels. Presented at Int. Conf. Commun., Boston MA.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists5

Reference Lists

Unpublished theses or dissertations

Newland, P.A. 1990. Understanding Designers’ Knowledge Acquisition Processes: A Potential for Enhancing Information Transfer. PhD dissertation. Portsmouth Univ., Portsmouth, UK.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists6

Reference Lists

Books

Austin, J.L. 1975. How to Do Things with Words, 2nd ed., J.O. Urmson and M. Sbisá editors. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

Berners-Lee, T. and M. Fischetti. 1999. Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by Its Inventor. New York: Harper Collins.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists7

Reference Lists

On-line sources

  • Conventions still evolving

  • Include as much of same information as for text-based source as possible

  • Include date you accessed site and the URL

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists8

Reference Lists

Web articles

Beverley, C. 1993. The ethics of technology in education. 30 Aug. 2000 <http://rgfn.epcc.edu/programs/trainer/ethics.html>

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists9

Reference Lists

Published articles accessed on the web

Whitbeck.C. Fall 1996. Problems and cases: New directions in ethics 1980-1996. 30 Aug. 2000 <http://www.onlineethics.org/essays/education/

index.html>.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists10

Reference Lists

On-line publications

Greenleaf, G. June 1996. A proposed privacy code for Asia-Pacific cyberlaw. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, ed. A.W. Branscomb. 2:1. 30 Aug 2000 <http://www.ascusc.org.vol2/issue1>.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Reference lists11

Reference Lists

On-line discussion groups

Adamowski, T. Writer’s resource. IEEE PCS Online Discussion Forum. 14 Dec. 1999 <http//ieeepcs.org/wwwboard/>,

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Sample reference list

Sample Reference List

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Variations

Variations

  • Referencing conventions vary among disciplines, fields, publications, and companies

    Wise, Penelope. “Money Today: Two Cents for a Dollar.” No Profit Review 2 (1987): 123-42.

    Wise. P. Money Today: Two cents for a dollar. No Profit Rev. 2: 123-42.

    Wise. P. 1987. Money today. No Profit Rev. 2: 123-42.

    Wise, P. 1987. No Profit Rev. 2: 123-42.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Disciplinary differences in ref lists

Disciplinary Differences in Ref. Lists

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Ieee style

IEEE Style

[1] B. Oakley, II, “HyperCard courseware for introduction to circuit analysis,” in Proc. ASEE Annu. Meet., 1991, pp. 496-500.

[2] Microsoft Video for Windows, Microsoft Corp. 232-100-901, 1994.

[3] K.L. Conway, “Putting technology in its place: the classroom,” Institute for Academic Technology, Spring 1991, p. 5.

[4] P.R. Keller and M.M. Keller, Visual Cues, Los Alamitos, CA, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1993.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


Asee style

ASEE Style

1. Tonso, K.L. “Becoming Engineers While Working Collaboratively: Knowledge and Gender in a Non-Traditional Engineering Course,” part of Margaret Eisenhart’s Final Report to the Spencer Foundation entitled “The Construction of Scientific Knowledge Outside School,” 1993.

2. Lunsford, A. Ede L., “Why Write . . . Together: A Research Update,” Rhetoric Review, 5, 1986, pp. 71-76.

3. “Learning Together Makes a Difference,” The Teaching Professor, June/July 1995, p. 5.

Stevenson/Whitmore: Strategies for Engineering Communication


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