Internet Browsing & Surfing. The Internet. What is the Internet?. Before we Know about internet we must know that what is the Network . A computer Network is a connection of two or more computers to share data & resources. What is the Internet?.
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Before we Know about internet we must know that what is the Network.
A computer Network is a connection of two or more computers to share data & resources.
The Internet is the largest electronic network. A global network of networks. The Internet also referred to as the Net, Information Superhighway, or Cyberspace.
The Internet as we know it today begins around 1969 with ARPANet, a network created by the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Originally connecting four universities, the network allows scientists across the country to share information and resources through their computers, which are about the size of a refrigerator. Through the 70’s and 80’s more universities connect their computers to ARPANet.
In 1985, the National Science Foundation (NSF) establishes 6 super computing sites in the U.S, which create the NSFNET backbone.
ARPANet dissolves in 1990, but the NSFNET backbone continues to grow in size and speed,
becoming network of networks, known today as the Internet.
In 1993, the World Wide Web (www) was born. The world-wide-web revolutionized the way people accessed information on the Internet.
Using hypertext markup language (HTML), people could link documents together, even documents on different computers, so long as the computers were connected to the Internet. Additionally, the documents were not required to be text-based files, but could also be image, sound, or video files. When information (text, image, sound, video, or a combination of these) is combined into a single document, we call it a web page. Web pages require the use of web browser software that interprets the page’s HTML and displays the information on the screen.
The basic requirements are:-
A software called Internet Browser is required to open websites. Here is a list of commonly used Internet Browsers :-
To search Internet a search engine is required. Here are some commonly used search engines:-
Finding information on the Internet that is relevant, useful, current and credible can be challenging.
Information on the Internet is:
Keywords: ’water’ ‘pollution’ ‘health’
Concepts: ‘environmental degradation’ or ‘agricultural management’ or ‘health’
Plurals: river(s), lake(s), disease(s)
Capitals: maybe the name of a specific lake, disease, region
Type in what you want to know, rather than a list of synonyms. Websites are written in flowing language, and search engines are being taught to understand the same.
The more unusual or uncommon the keywords you use are, the more specific the results will be. Taking a moment to think of a valid yet uncommon word is a valuable technique.Note: For few engines the word order is important, so always enter the rare word first.
From experiences with Google, it has been found that putting the word that is most important to your search in first, gets slightly better results.
Search engines look for pieces of text that match your query. Web pages are more likely to contain answers than questions - so search for the answer. Phrase your query how you would expect the answer to read - the difference appears slight, but it makes a huge difference.For Example:
Searching by Keyword
Searching by Keyword
Site 1 - link and description Site 2 - link and descriptionSite 3 - link and descriptionetc.
Perhaps the most useful feature in defining search criteria, Boolean operators provide you with powerful control over search engine logic
If you want a document that contains all of your keywords, use the capitalized word AND between keywords. The engine will only find documents that have both words.
If you want to broaden your search to find documents that contain either of the keywords, use the OR operator between words. This is very useful when searching for terms that have synonyms.
For Example: children OR kids, which would return any document that had either of the words.
Using the capitalized AND NOT preceding a search term eliminates documents that contain that term
Query: I\'m interested in the relationship between education and literacy
Query: I would like information about education or literacy
Query: I want to see information about education, but I want to avoid seeing anything about secondary
music AND "George Harrison"
"John Lennon" OR "George Harrison"
Searching by Boolean Search Operators
Beatles NOT "Ringo Starr"
Parentheses are used in Boolean logic similar to the way they are used in a mathematical equation, limiting and ordering relations between variables.
If you want to find a Web-based Internet tutorial you might use the search criteria
Internet AND (tutorial OR lesson).
The documents returned must contain both of the words Internet and tutorial or Internet and lesson.
flower AND(rose OR Jasmine)
music AND Beatles NOT ("John Lennon" OR "Ringo Starr")
e.g.large~big to return results including large, big, great and huge
e.g.Laptops PKR15,000…50,000 to find results where laptops ranging in price from PKR15,000…50,000 are included in the results
Searching by Search Operators
"Robin Hood" -movie
Returns listing the site and offers options for more information
Returns pages that link to the NASA site—about 155,000 pages
Returns results from the specified website
Field Search Operators