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203511 Second Language Acquisition. Week 3: Second Language Acquisition Theories. Ellis, R. (1986) Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: OUP (Chapter 10.). Issues First Language Acquisition (FLA) VS. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) Role of SLA theories

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203511 second language acquisition

203511 Second Language Acquisition

Week 3:

Second Language Acquisition Theories


Ellis r 1986 understanding second language acquisition oxford oup chapter 10
Ellis, R. (1986) Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: OUP (Chapter 10.)

  • Issues

    • First Language Acquisition (FLA) VS. Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

    • Role of SLA theories

    • Schumann’s Pidginization Hypothesis and Acculturation Model

    • Accommodation Theory


Fla vs sla
FLA vs. SLA Oxford: OUP (Chapter 10.)

  • Fundamental Difference Hypothesis (FDH)

    • Bley-Vroman, R. (1988). The fundamental character of foreign language learning. In W. Rutherford & M. Sharwood Smith (Eds.), Grammar and second language teaching: A book of readings (pp. 19-30). New York: Newbury House.

    • Ellis, R. 1994The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Feature fla sla
Feature FLA Oxford: OUP (Chapter 10.)SLA

Overall

Success

Perfect L1

mastery

Unlikely to achieve perfect L1 mastery

Success guaranteed

Complete success rare

General

Failure

Variation

Little variation in the degree of success or route

Variation in overall success and route


Feature fla sla1
Feature FLA Oxford: OUP (Chapter 10.)SLA

TL competence

Content with less than TL competence or more concerned with fluency rather than accuracy

Goals

Fossilisation

Unknown

Common, + Backsliding (i.e. return to earlier stages of development)


Feature fla sla2
Feature FLA Oxford: OUP (Chapter 10.)SLA

Not needed

Helpful or necessary

Instruction

Clear intuitions about correctness

Unable to form clear grammaticality judgements

Intuitions

Negative Evidence

Correction not found and not necessary

Correction generally helpful or necessary

Not involved

A major role in determining success

Affective factors


Week 3 second language acquisition theories 1
Week 3: Second Language Acquisition Theories (1) Oxford: OUP (Chapter 10.)

  • Issues

    • First Language Acquisition (FLA) VS. Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

    • Role of SLA theories

    • Schumann’s Pidginization Hypothesis and Acculturation Model

    • Accommodation Theory


Role of sla theories
Role of SLA theories Oxford: OUP (Chapter 10.)

  • Descriptive

    • The theory formally specifies rules accounting for all observed arrangements of data.

    • The rules produce all and only well-formed structures corresponding to the intuition of the native speaker, i.e. predictability of the

    • (SLA) Characterisation of the nature of the linguistic categories which constitute the learner’s interlanguage at any point in development


Role of sla theories1
Role of SLA theories Oxford: OUP (Chapter 10.)

  • Explanatory

    • "A linguistic theory that aims for explanatory adequacy is concerned with the internal structure of the device [i.e. grammar]; that is, it aims to provide a principled basis, independent of any particular language, for the selection of the descriptively adequate grammar of each language.”

      • Chomsky, Noam. (1964). “Current Issues in Linguistic Theory”, in Fodor, J. A. and J. J. Katz (eds.), The Structure of Language: Readings in the Philosophy of Language, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall: 50-118.


Week 3 second language acquisition theories 11
Week 3: Second Language Acquisition Theories (1) Oxford: OUP (Chapter 10.)

  • Issues

    • First Language Acquisition (FLA) VS. Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

    • Role of SLA theories

    • Schumann’s Pidginization Hypothesis and Acculturation Model

    • Accommodation Theory


Schumann’s Pidginization Hypothesis and Acculturation Model

“The process of becoming adapted to a new culture”

4 stages

  • Initial excitement and euphoria

Estrangement and hostility

  • Culture shock

  • Culture stress

Recovery

  • Assimilation or adaptation to the new culture


Schumann’s Pidginization Hypothesis and Acculturation Model (Cont.)

Its relation to SLA

  • Learner group vs. Reference group (or Target language group)

  • The degree to which a learner acculturates to the target language group will control the degree to which he acquires the second language

  • Social and psychological factors determine the amount of contact with the TL and the degree to which the learner is open to that input which is available (p.252)


Schumann s pidginization hypothesis and acculturation model cont
Schumann’s Pidginization Hypothesis and Acculturation Model (Cont.)

  • Social variables

    • social dominance: the degree to which the learner’s social group is dominant/subordinate to TG

    • integration pattern: the degree to which the learner wishes to integrate/assimilate herself to the TG

    • enclosure: the degree to which the learner’s acquaintances are integrated into or enclosed from the TG, i.e. sharing social facilities

    • cohesiveness: how close is the learner’s social group?

    • size: how large is the learner’s social group?

    • cultural congruence: how close are the two cultures?

    • attitude: are the inter-group attitudes favorable, neutral, or hostile?

    • intended length of residence: how long does the learner plan to be there?


Acculturation Theory (Cont.) Model (Cont.)

  • Pidginization hypothesis = when social and/or psychological distances are great, the learner fails to progress beyond the early stages (Schumann, 1976)

Alberto (33, Costa Rican)

a reduced and simplified form of English

  • use of no e.g. I no use television

  • lack of inversion e.g. What you study?

  • lack of auxiliaries

  • lack of possessive "-s"

  • unmarked forms of the verb (-ed)

  • lack of subject pronouns


Acculturation Theory (Cont.) Model (Cont.)

  • 3 functions of language

  • Communicative

  • Integrative

  • Expressive

Pidgin and Pidginised languages


Acculturation Theory (Cont.) Model (Cont.)

Evaluation

  • No explanation as to how L2 knowledge is internalised and used i.e. how ‘input’ becomes ‘intake’

  • No elaboration on ‘internal norm’ and ‘external norm’

  • Fail to consider the role of the interaction between situation and learner


Acculturation Theory (Cont.) Model (Cont.)

  • Not a necessary condition for successful L2 acquisition

  • Probably not applicable to foreign language situations (no naturalistic SLA)

  • There are cases where social and psychological attitudes do not affect the degree of success


Week 3 second language acquisition theories 12
Week 3: Second Language Acquisition Theories (1) Model (Cont.)

  • Issues

    • First Language Acquisition (FLA) VS. Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

    • Role of SLA theories

    • Schumann’s Pidginization Hypothesis and Acculturation Model

    • Accommodation Theory


Social group Model (Cont.)

Ingroup

TL community

Outgroup

Accommodation Theory

similarities

Acculturation Accommodation

differences

“actual” social distance

“perceived” social distance

Social & psychological distance = absolute phenomena

Constant negotiation during each interaction

Static relationship between L & TL com.

Dynamic relationship between L & TL com.


Accommodation Theory (Cont.) Model (Cont.)

  • Motivation = primary determinant of L2 proficiency (p. 257)

Convergence----------------Divergence

Integrate Separate Social Group

More L2 Learning Less L2 Learning


Accommodation Theory (Cont.) Model (Cont.)

  • Variability in the learner’s output (e.g. dialects, accents as a result of how Ls perceive themselves in relation to the TL group)

  • Convergence Divergence

  • Careful Style--------------------Vernacular Style

  • Attention to form Less attention


  • End of Week 3 Model (Cont.)

  • Next week assignment

    • Read Hawkins, R. (2001) The significance of Universal Grammar in second language acquisition.


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