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Skeletal System. CHAPTER 6. Skeletal System. Human skeleton consists of 206 bones Serves as support ing framework of body Protects vital internal organs Important role in movement = attachments for muscles Reservoir for storing minerals Red bone marrow = blood cell formation.

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skeletal system1
Skeletal System
  • Human skeleton consists of 206 bones
    • Serves as supporting framework of body
    • Protects vital internal organs
    • Important role in movement = attachments for muscles
    • Reservoir for storing minerals
    • Red bone marrow = blood cell formation
bone structure
Bone Structure
  • Diaphysis
    • Main shaft-like portion of a long bone
    • Compact bone
  • Epiphysis
    • Located at each end of a long bone
  • Epiphyseal line
    • Separates diaphysis from epiphysis
bone structure1
Bone Structure
  • Periosteum
    • Covers the surface of the long bone
  • Articular cartilage
    • Covers joint surfaces
  • Medullary (marrow) cavity
    • Contains yellow marrow
bone structure2
Bone Structure
  • Spongy bone (trabeculae)
    • Also called cancellous bone
  • Red bone marrow
    • Site for blood cell production
  • Yellow marrow
    • Stores fat
bone markings
Bone Markings
  • Bone markings = specific features of bones
    • Enlargements that extend out from the bone
    • Openings within the bone
    • Hollow regions within the bone
    • Points of attachment for muscles and tendons
    • Points for joining one bone to another
    • Cavities and passage for nerves and blood vessels
bone depressions
Bone Depressions
  • Concave areas or openings in a bone
    • Help form joints
    • Serve as points of attachment for muscle
  • Sulcus
    • Groove or depression in a bone
      • Example = fissure
  • Sinus
    • Opening or hollow space in a bone
      • Example = frontal sinus
bone depressions1
Bone Depressions
  • Fossa
    • Hollow or shallow concave depression in bone
      • Example = fossa of the iliac (hip) bone
  • Foramen
    • Hole within a bone for blood vessels or nerves to pass through
      • Example = Foramen magnum of the skull
cranial bones
Cranial Bones
  • Cranium = bony skull
    • Envelops brain
  • Composed of eight bones
    • Immovable bones
  • Borders meet to form immovable joints
    • Immovable joints = sutures
facial bones
Facial Bones
  • Two bones provide distinctive shape to face
    • Maxillae (upper jaw bones)
    • Mandible (lower jaw bone)
  • All facial bones connected by immovable joints (sutures)
    • One exception (mandible)
vertebral bones
Vertebral Bones
  • Form long axis of the body
    • Referred to as spinal column or backbone
    • 24 vertebrae + sacrum + coccyx
    • Offer protection to spinal cord
vertebral bones1
Vertebral Bones
  • Cervical vertebrae
    • Vertebrae of the neck (cervic/o = neck)
    • Identified as C1 – C7
  • Thoracic vertebrae
    • Vertebrae of the chest (thorac/o = chest)
    • Identified as T1 – T12
  • Lumbar vertebrae
    • Vertebrae of lower back (lumb/o = lower back, loins)
    • Identified as L1-L5
vertebral bones2
Vertebral Bones
  • Sacrum
    • Singular, triangular shaped bone
    • Resulted from fusion of five individual sacral bones in the child
  • Coccyx
    • Also called “tailbone”
    • Resulted from fusion of four individual coccygeal bones in the child
bones of the thorax
Bones of the Thorax
  • True ribs (Ribs 1-7)
    • Attach to sternum in front and vertebrae in back
  • False ribs (Ribs 8-10)
    • Attach to vertebrae in back but attach to cartilage of 7th rib in front – not the sternum
  • Floating ribs (Ribs 11-12)
    • Attach to vertebrae in back
    • Completely free of attachment in front
bones of the lower extremities
Bones of the Lower Extremities
  • Femur
    • Thigh bone
  • Patella
    • Knee bone or kneecap
  • Tibia
    • Larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones
  • Fibula
    • More slender of the two lower leg bones
bones of the ankle and foot
Bones of the Ankle and Foot
  • Ankle bones (Tarsals)
    • Calcaneus
    • Talus bone
  • Foot bones
    • Metatarsals
    • Phalanges
osteomalacia
Osteomalacia
  • Pronounced
    • (oss-tee-oh-mah-LAY-she-ah)
  • Defined
    • Abnormal softening of the bones due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood
      • Which is necessary for bone mineralization
osteomyelitis
Osteomyelitis
  • Pronounced
    • (oss-tee-oh-my-ell-EYE-tis)
  • Defined
    • A local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow
    • Resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood
osteoporosis
Osteoporosis
  • Pronounced
    • (oss-tee-oh-poh-ROW-sis)
  • Defined
    • Porous bones
    • Bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density
ewing s sarcoma
Ewing’s Sarcoma
  • Pronounced
    • (YOO-wings sar-KOH-mah)
  • Defined
    • Malignant tumor of the bones common to young adults, particularly adolescent boys
osteogenic sarcoma
Osteogenic Sarcoma
  • Pronounced
    • (oss-tee-oh-JEN-ic sar-KOH-mah)
  • Defined
    • Malignant tumor arising from bone
    • Also known as osteosarcoma
osteochondroma
Osteochondroma
  • Pronounced
    • (oss-tee-oh-kon-DROH-mah)
  • Defined
    • Most common benign bone tumor
    • Most frequently involves the femur and tibia
paget s disease
Paget’s Disease
  • Pronounced
    • (PAJ-ets dih-ZEEZ)
  • Defined
    • Nonmetabolic disease of the bone
    • Characterized by excessive bone destruction and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts
      • Bone is weak and prone to fractures
spinal stenosis
Spinal Stenosis
  • Pronounced
    • (SPIGH-nal stin-OH-sis)
  • Defined
    • Narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina
      • Openings of the lumbar spinal canal
        • Causes pressure on nerve roots prior to their exit from the foramina
talipes equinovarus
Talipes Equinovarus
  • Pronounced
    • (TAL-ih-peez eh-kwine-oh-VAIR-us)
  • Defined
    • Clubfoot
abnormal curvature of the spine
Abnormal Curvature of the Spine
  • Kyphosis
    • Outward curvature = humpback or hunchback
  • Lordosis
    • Inward curvature = swayback
  • Scoliosis
    • Lateral (sideward) curvature
fracture broken bone
Fracture: Broken Bone
  • Closed fracture
    • Break in the bone but no open wound in skin
    • Simple fracture
  • Open fracture
    • Break in the bone, as well as an open wound in skin
    • Compound fracture
fracture broken bone1
Fracture: Broken Bone
  • Complete fracture
    • Break extends through the entire thickness of bone
  • Incomplete fracture
    • One side of bone is broken and one side of bone is bent considerably but not broken
    • Greenstick fracture
fracture broken bone2
Fracture: Broken Bone
  • Compression fracture
    • Caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other
  • Impacted fracture
    • Direct force causes bone to break
    • Forces broken end of smaller bone into broken end of larger bone
fracture broken bone3
Fracture: Broken Bone
  • Colle’s fracture
    • Break occurs at lower end of the radius
    • Within one inch of connecting with wrist bones
  • Hairline fracture
    • Minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment
    • Also known as a stress fracture
fracture broken bone4
Fracture: Broken Bone
  • Pathological fracture
    • Bone is weakened by a preexisting disease
    • Break is in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break
  • Treatment of fractures
    • Closed reduction
    • Open reduction
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures1
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Bone scan
    • Intravenous injection of a radioisotope, which is absorbed by bone tissue
    • Followed by scanning of the skeleton approximately three hours later to detect areas where the bone absorbs the isotope
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures2
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Bone marrow aspiration
    • Removal of a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle
    • Specimen is examined under a microscope
    • Sterile technique
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures3
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Noninvasive procedures for evaluating bone density
    • Dual Photon Absorptiometry
    • Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
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