Skeletal system
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Skeletal System. CHAPTER 6. Skeletal System. Human skeleton consists of 206 bones Serves as support ing framework of body Protects vital internal organs Important role in movement = attachments for muscles Reservoir for storing minerals Red bone marrow = blood cell formation.

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Skeletal System

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Skeletal system

Skeletal System

CHAPTER 6


Skeletal system1

Skeletal System

  • Human skeleton consists of 206 bones

    • Serves as supporting framework of body

    • Protects vital internal organs

    • Important role in movement = attachments for muscles

    • Reservoir for storing minerals

    • Red bone marrow = blood cell formation


Bone structure

Bone Structure

  • Diaphysis

    • Main shaft-like portion of a long bone

    • Compact bone

  • Epiphysis

    • Located at each end of a long bone

  • Epiphyseal line

    • Separates diaphysis from epiphysis


Bone structure1

Bone Structure

  • Periosteum

    • Covers the surface of the long bone

  • Articular cartilage

    • Covers joint surfaces

  • Medullary (marrow) cavity

    • Contains yellow marrow


Bone structure2

Bone Structure

  • Spongy bone (trabeculae)

    • Also called cancellous bone

  • Red bone marrow

    • Site for blood cell production

  • Yellow marrow

    • Stores fat


Bone structure3

Bone Structure


Bone markings

Bone Markings

  • Bone markings = specific features of bones

    • Enlargements that extend out from the bone

    • Openings within the bone

    • Hollow regions within the bone

    • Points of attachment for muscles and tendons

    • Points for joining one bone to another

    • Cavities and passage for nerves and blood vessels


Bone depressions

Bone Depressions

  • Concave areas or openings in a bone

    • Help form joints

    • Serve as points of attachment for muscle

  • Sulcus

    • Groove or depression in a bone

      • Example = fissure

  • Sinus

    • Opening or hollow space in a bone

      • Example = frontal sinus


Bone depressions1

Bone Depressions

  • Fossa

    • Hollow or shallow concave depression in bone

      • Example = fossa of the iliac (hip) bone

  • Foramen

    • Hole within a bone for blood vessels or nerves to pass through

      • Example = Foramen magnum of the skull


Cranial bones

Cranial Bones

  • Cranium = bony skull

    • Envelops brain

  • Composed of eight bones

    • Immovable bones

  • Borders meet to form immovable joints

    • Immovable joints = sutures


Cranial bones1

Cranial Bones


Facial bones

Facial Bones

  • Two bones provide distinctive shape to face

    • Maxillae (upper jaw bones)

    • Mandible (lower jaw bone)

  • All facial bones connected by immovable joints (sutures)

    • One exception (mandible)


Facial bones1

Facial Bones


Vertebral bones

Vertebral Bones

  • Form long axis of the body

    • Referred to as spinal column or backbone

    • 24 vertebrae + sacrum + coccyx

    • Offer protection to spinal cord


Vertebral bones1

Vertebral Bones

  • Cervical vertebrae

    • Vertebrae of the neck (cervic/o = neck)

    • Identified as C1 – C7

  • Thoracic vertebrae

    • Vertebrae of the chest (thorac/o = chest)

    • Identified as T1 – T12

  • Lumbar vertebrae

    • Vertebrae of lower back (lumb/o = lower back, loins)

    • Identified as L1-L5


Vertebral bones2

Vertebral Bones

  • Sacrum

    • Singular, triangular shaped bone

    • Resulted from fusion of five individual sacral bones in the child

  • Coccyx

    • Also called “tailbone”

    • Resulted from fusion of four individual coccygeal bones in the child


Bones of the thorax

Bones of the Thorax

  • True ribs (Ribs 1-7)

    • Attach to sternum in front and vertebrae in back

  • False ribs (Ribs 8-10)

    • Attach to vertebrae in back but attach to cartilage of 7th rib in front – not the sternum

  • Floating ribs (Ribs 11-12)

    • Attach to vertebrae in back

    • Completely free of attachment in front


Bones of the upper extremities

Bones of the Upper Extremities


Pelvic bones

Pelvic Bones


Bones of the lower extremities

Bones of the Lower Extremities

  • Femur

    • Thigh bone

  • Patella

    • Knee bone or kneecap

  • Tibia

    • Larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones

  • Fibula

    • More slender of the two lower leg bones


Bones of the ankle and foot

Bones of the Ankle and Foot

  • Ankle bones (Tarsals)

    • Calcaneus

    • Talus bone

  • Foot bones

    • Metatarsals

    • Phalanges


Pathological conditions

PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Skeletal System


Osteomalacia

Osteomalacia

  • Pronounced

    • (oss-tee-oh-mah-LAY-she-ah)

  • Defined

    • Abnormal softening of the bones due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood

      • Which is necessary for bone mineralization


Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis

  • Pronounced

    • (oss-tee-oh-my-ell-EYE-tis)

  • Defined

    • A local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow

    • Resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood


Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis

  • Pronounced

    • (oss-tee-oh-poh-ROW-sis)

  • Defined

    • Porous bones

    • Bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density


Osteoporosis1

Osteoporosis


Ewing s sarcoma

Ewing’s Sarcoma

  • Pronounced

    • (YOO-wings sar-KOH-mah)

  • Defined

    • Malignant tumor of the bones common to young adults, particularly adolescent boys


Osteogenic sarcoma

Osteogenic Sarcoma

  • Pronounced

    • (oss-tee-oh-JEN-ic sar-KOH-mah)

  • Defined

    • Malignant tumor arising from bone

    • Also known as osteosarcoma


Osteochondroma

Osteochondroma

  • Pronounced

    • (oss-tee-oh-kon-DROH-mah)

  • Defined

    • Most common benign bone tumor

    • Most frequently involves the femur and tibia


Paget s disease

Paget’s Disease

  • Pronounced

    • (PAJ-ets dih-ZEEZ)

  • Defined

    • Nonmetabolic disease of the bone

    • Characterized by excessive bone destruction and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts

      • Bone is weak and prone to fractures


Spinal stenosis

Spinal Stenosis

  • Pronounced

    • (SPIGH-nal stin-OH-sis)

  • Defined

    • Narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina

      • Openings of the lumbar spinal canal

        • Causes pressure on nerve roots prior to their exit from the foramina


Talipes equinovarus

Talipes Equinovarus

  • Pronounced

    • (TAL-ih-peez eh-kwine-oh-VAIR-us)

  • Defined

    • Clubfoot


Talipes

Talipes


Abnormal curvature of the spine

Abnormal Curvature of the Spine

  • Kyphosis

    • Outward curvature = humpback or hunchback

  • Lordosis

    • Inward curvature = swayback

  • Scoliosis

    • Lateral (sideward) curvature


Abnormal curvature of the spine1

Abnormal Curvature of the Spine


Fracture broken bone

Fracture: Broken Bone

  • Closed fracture

    • Break in the bone but no open wound in skin

    • Simple fracture

  • Open fracture

    • Break in the bone, as well as an open wound in skin

    • Compound fracture


Fracture broken bone1

Fracture: Broken Bone

  • Complete fracture

    • Break extends through the entire thickness of bone

  • Incomplete fracture

    • One side of bone is broken and one side of bone is bent considerably but not broken

    • Greenstick fracture


Fracture broken bone2

Fracture: Broken Bone

  • Compression fracture

    • Caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other

  • Impacted fracture

    • Direct force causes bone to break

    • Forces broken end of smaller bone into broken end of larger bone


Fracture broken bone3

Fracture: Broken Bone

  • Colle’s fracture

    • Break occurs at lower end of the radius

    • Within one inch of connecting with wrist bones

  • Hairline fracture

    • Minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment

    • Also known as a stress fracture


Fracture broken bone4

Fracture: Broken Bone

  • Pathological fracture

    • Bone is weakened by a preexisting disease

    • Break is in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break

  • Treatment of fractures

    • Closed reduction

    • Open reduction


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures

DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES

Skeletal System


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures1

Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Bone scan

    • Intravenous injection of a radioisotope, which is absorbed by bone tissue

    • Followed by scanning of the skeleton approximately three hours later to detect areas where the bone absorbs the isotope


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures2

Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Bone marrow aspiration

    • Removal of a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle

    • Specimen is examined under a microscope

    • Sterile technique


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures3

Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Noninvasive procedures for evaluating bone density

    • Dual Photon Absorptiometry

    • Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry


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