Chapter 4 18 review
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Chapter 4 & 18 review. 1. What are the characteristics of living organisms? (on webquest ) Made up of at least one cell Has DNA Needs energy and a food source to survive Grows Has a metabolism Maintains homeostasis Responds to stimuli from environment Reproduces

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Chapter 4 & 18 review

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Chapter 4 18 review

Chapter 4 & 18 review


Chapter 4 18 review

1. What are the characteristics of living organisms? (on webquest)

  • Made up of at least one cell

  • Has DNA

  • Needs energy and a food source to survive

  • Grows

  • Has a metabolism

  • Maintains homeostasis

  • Responds to stimuli from environment

  • Reproduces

    2. Would a virus be considered living? Why or why not?

    - NO!Viruses:

    - Not made of cells

    - Not all have DNA (some do)

    - Do NOT need food

    - Do NOT grow

    - Do NOT have a metabolism

    - Do NOT maintain homeostasis

    - Do NOT reproduce on own (use host cell)


Chapter 4 18 review

3. What (and when) did Hooke discover?

Robert Hooke (in 1665):

First person to see cells (cork), named cells

4. What (and when) did van Leeuwenhoek discover?

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (in 1673):

  • First person to see living cells (Protists and bacteria), made his own microscopes

    5. List the parts of the cell theory

    - All living organisms are made up of one or more cells

    - Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in a living organism

    - Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells


Chapter 4 18 review

6. Do all cells look the same? Average cell size?

  • No, cells come in many different shapes and sizes (although most are microscopic). The form (shape) of a cell enables the cell to perform its specific function efficiently

  • Average plant and animal cell: 10 – 50 micrometers, bacterial cells are much smaller

    7. Describe “Form Fits Function”. Explain a cellular example.

  • The form (shape) of a cell enables the cell to perform its specific function efficiently

    • Examples:

      • Red Blood Cell is round to fit through blood vessels,

      • White Blood Cell can change shape to move around the body and fight off infections,

      • Nerve cells have long extensions to send and receive messages

      • Skin cells are flat and stack up to form a protective barrier


Chapter 4 18 review

8. What does selectively permeable mean?

  • Only certain materials are permitted to enter and leave the cell

  • Only certain amounts are permitted to enter and leave the cell

    9. Describe the cell of a prokaryotic organism. Give an example

  • Example: Bacteria (Archaebacteria, Methanogen; Eubacteria, E. coli)

  • Very small (smaller than eukaryotic),

  • All have a cell membrane, Some also have a cell wall,

  • All prokaryotic cells have cytoplasm and cytosol,

  • All prokaryotic cells have DNA (usually clumped together into a nucleoid region),

    • NO NUCLEUS!!!

  • All prokaryotic cells have organelles without membranes (ribosomes)


Chapter 4 18 review

10. Describe the cell of a eukaryotic organism.

  • Examples: Protist, Amoeba; Fungi, mushroom, yeast; Plant; Animal

  • Usually microscopic,

  • All eukaryotic cells have a cell membrane, some also have cell walls (NO ANIMAL CELLS HAVE CELL WALLS),

  • All eukaryotic cells have cytoplasm and cytosol,

  • All eukaryotic cells have DNA inside of a nucleus,

  • All eukaryotic cells have organelles without and with membranes

    11. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

  • Prokaryotic cells are usually smaller.

  • Prokaryotic cells do not have organelles with a membrane (nucleus, Golgi, Mitochondria, ER, Chloroplast)

    12. What do all cells have in common?

  • All cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, cytosol, DNA and some organelles


Chapter 4 18 review

13. What is binomial nomenclature?

  • Scientific naming process, each identified organism is classified into categories from very general to very specific.

  • The Genus and species name are combined to give the scientific name of organisms, always capitalize Genus, need to italicize or underline whole name

    • Homo sapiens; Limulus polyphemus; E. coli

    • Homo sapiens; Limulus polyphemus; E. coli

      14. 3 Domains:

  • Domain Archae(Kingdom Archaebacteria),

  • Domain Bacteria (Kingdom Eubacteria),

  • Domain Eukarya(Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia)


Chapter 4 18 review

15. Who created the Kingdom system? List the categories from most general to specific

- Linnaeus: Swedish scientist, devised heirarchical classification system, created binomial nomenclature system

Linnaeus’:

Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species

Now:

Domain  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species


Chapter 4 18 review

16. Characteristics of:

  • Kingdom Archaebacteria (“ancient” bacteria)

    • Cell Type:

      • Prokaryotic ONLY

    • Nutrition:

      • Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic (Both)

    • Example: Methanogens

  • Kingdom Eubacteria (“True” bacteria)

    • Cell Type:

      • Prokaryotic ONLY

    • Nutrition:

      • Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic (Both)

    • Example: E. coli, salmonella


Chapter 4 18 review

  • Kingdom Protista

    • Cell Type:

      • Eukaryotic ONLY

    • Nutrition:

      • Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic (Both)

    • Example: Amoeba, Algae

  • Kingdom Fungi

    • Cell Type:

      • Eukaryotic ONLY

    • Nutrition:

      • Heterotrophic ONLY

    • Example: Mushroom, Mold


Chapter 4 18 review

  • Kingdom Plantae

    • Cell Type:

      • Eukaryotic ONLY

    • Nutrition:

      • Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic (Both)

    • Example: Tree, grass, cacti, flowers, vegetables

  • Kingdom Animalia

    • Cell Type:

      • Eukaryotic ONLY

    • Nutrition:

      • Heterotrophic ONLY

    • Example: Human, bird, turtle, worm, fish, cat


Cell type

Cell Type


Nutrition

Nutrition


Cell type1

Cell Type


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