The girls of India: continuing inequality in primary schools explored
Poster for the IDS Lecture Series 2011 SocialJustice and Development in the Global South, by:
Daniel CalzadaVázquez 6485022
Vincent Beets 5978432
Illiteracy (general population, 2011):
female 35%male 18%
Enrolmentratio: Grades 1-5 (primarylevel): 0.92to 1
Grades 6-8 (upperprimary): 0.84to 1
Higher drop-out ratesPercentageofgirls in the final examinationyearatprimarylevel: 36% (2001)
Different accordingtothestudent‘sgender, evenwhengirls’ perform at the same or at a better level than boys.
Greaterinvestment in boys\' than in girls\' education
Seclusion of girls to preserve their ‘purity’
Scheduledcastes and tribes
Poverty, combinedwithdistance to school
Reproductionofgenderroles in programmes,
Teachers\' andadministrators\' behaviours
Lack ofinfrastructure, e.g. girls‘ toilets
School as an instrumentofsocialcontrol.
Hindu and muslimtraditions
Technocraticlogic: “high-”and “low-status” knowledge
Male and femaleenrolment in primary schools in India: A 30-year comparison in the 20th century
Percentage of out-of-schoolchildrenbyagegroup (2005)
Source: Social and RuralReasearchInstitute, (2005), cited in: Bing Wu, Kin, P. Golschmidt, C. K. Boscardin & M. Azam (2011).
- POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
- The influences of traditional society in the education system should be acknowledged. Monitoring and impact assessment of gender equality strategies lacks support.
- Support of independent schooling programmes
- Informal or alternative schooling programmes (bridge courses) for bringing girls back to school have proven effective.
- International NGOs
- Collaboration between local and foreign organizations have shown potential to challenge gender inequalities through the acquisition of different perspectives about learning.
- NO "western influence"
- Ideas of womens\' liberation should not be transmitted as intrinsecally "western". Connect these ideas with local values.
- Still more schools are needed, principally in rural areas. Basic minimum facilities for disadvantaged groups genders are needed, the access to school through roads and transportation facilities can still be improved.
Source: Self, S. & R. Grabowski (2003).
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