Studying the word
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Studying the Word. Part 1. Study Tools that You Need Here. A Bible – Preferably an Interlinear Bible keyed to Strong’s – J.P. Green’s Interlinear is good, but the text is so small… A Notebook Text Highlighter (various colors). Basic Books. Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible

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Studying the Word

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Studying the word

Studying the Word

Part 1


Study tools that you need here

Study Tools that You Need Here

  • A Bible – Preferably an InterlinearBible keyed to Strong’s – J.P. Green’s Interlinear is good, but the text is so small…

  • A Notebook

  • Text Highlighter (various colors)


Basic books

Basic Books

  • Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible

  • Bible Dictionary

  • Bible Lexicon

  • Eerdman’s Handbook to the Bible

  • Jewish and Church History books

  • Bible Atlas (Maps)


Approach to studying the bible

Approach to Studying the Bible

“Do all you can to present yourself to God as someone worthy of his approval, as a worker with no need to be ashamed, because he deals straightforwardly with the Word of the Truth.”

2 Timothy 2:15


God s word

God’s Word

God expects us to familiarize ourselves with His Word. Only by fully appreciating it will we act on it. Yeshua said, “…It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God” (Matthew 4:4, quoted from Deuteronomy 8:3).


Psalms 119 105 affirms

Psalms 119:105 affirms:

“Your word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.”


1 start with prayer

1) Start with Prayer

Probably one of the most common reasons why believers don't study the Bible is based on this complaint, "I just don't understand it!" Before you start each study session, begin by praying and asking God to open your spiritual understanding.


2 timothy 3 16

2 Timothy 3:16

The Bible says in 2 Timothy 3:16, "All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness." (NIV) So, as you pray, realize that the words you are studying are inspired by God. Psalm 119:130 tells us, "The unfolding of your words gives light; it gives understanding to the simple." (NIV)


2 read the entire book context context context

2) Read the Entire Book – Context, Context, Context

Spend some time, perhaps several days, reading through the entire book. Do this more than once. As you read, look for themes that may be woven into the chapters. Sometimes you'll detect a general message in the book.


Studying the word

For example, in the book of James, an obvious theme is "Persevering through Trials." Take notes (hence the notebook) on the ideas that jump out at you.


Life application principles

Life Application Principles

Look also for "life application principles." An example of a life application principle in the book of James is: "Make sure my faith is more than just a statement - it should result in action." It's a good practice to try and pull out these themes and applications on your own as you meditate, even before you begin using other study tools. This gives an opportunity for God's Word to speak personally to you.


3 zoom in

3) Zoom In

Now you will slow down and read the book verse by verse, breaking down the text, looking for deeper understanding. Hebrews 4:12 begins with, "For the word of God is living and active..." (NIV)


Studying the word

Now let's see what it looks like under a microscope, as we begin breaking down the text. Using a Bible dictionary, look up the meaning of the word living in the original language. It is the Greek word 'Zaõ' meaning, "not only living, but causing to live, vivifying, quickening."


4 a deeper meaning

4) A Deeper Meaning

You start to see a deeper meaning: "God's Word causes life to come about; it quickens." Because God's Word is alive, you can study the same passage several times and continue to discover new, relevant applications throughout your walk of faith.


5 choose your tools

5) Choose Your Tools

As you continue to do this type of verse by verse study, there's no limit to the wealth of understanding and growth that will come from your time spent in God's Word. For this portion of your study, you will want to consider choosing the right tools to aid you in your learning, such as a commentary, lexicon or Bible dictionary.


Studying the word

A Bible study guide or perhaps a study Bible will also help you dig deeper. There are also many useful on-line Bible study resources available, if you have access to a computer for your study time.


6 be a doer of the word

6) Be a Doer of the Word

Don't just study God's Word for the sake of studying. Be sure to put the Word into practice in your life.

Yeshua said in Luke 11:28, "But even more blessed are all who hear the word of God and put it into practice." (NLT)


Apologetics

Apologetics

Part 2


Apologetics not apologizing but defending

Apologetics – Not Apologizing, but Defending!

Doesn’t mean that we “apologize” for what we believe, but Defending what we believe!


Strong s number 627

ἀπολογία- Strong's Number: 627

Transliterated Word Phonetic Spelling

apologia ap-ol-og-ee'-ah

Definition

  • verbal defense, speech in defense

  • a reasoned statement or argument


1 peter 3 15

1 Peter 3:15

“…but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always {being} ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence…”


We need to be able to make an apologia for the hope that lies within us

We need to be able to make an “Apologia” for the Hope that lies within us!

With gentleness and reverence


We need to be able to answer the question

We Need to be Able to Answer the Question:

“Why do we believe what we believe?”


What we believe and why we believe must be based upon what the scriptures say

What we believe and why we believe must be based upon what the Scriptures say:


Exegesis

Exegesis…

Theological Positions; Ideas

Reading “out” (exe) of the Scriptures…


That s the rub

That’s the Rub…

The reason why there is such diversity of understanding is that most often we read into the Scriptures what we want the Scriptures to say.


Known as eisegesis

…Known as “Eisegesis”

Preconceived Theology; Ideas

  • Reading “Into” (eise) the Scriptures!


With eisegesis we can make the bible say anything we want

With Eisegesis We Can Make the Bible say ANYTHING We Want!

…Judas went out and hanged himself… (Matthew 27:5)

And Jesus said, “Go, do thou likewise.” (Luke 10:37)

“…what thou doest, do thou quickly!” (John 13:27)


Studying the word

When, in reality, we should study out the Scriptures from its own perspective!


Like prospecting

Like Prospecting…

Taking gold out of the earth!


Careful study

Careful Study…

The process of careful study of a biblical passage in relation to its historical setting; its setting in the overall collection that makes up the scriptures, specific questions of language and literary form, and how it has been understood by past interpreters, in order to provide a foundation for hearing what the passage may have to say to us today.


2 timothy 2 15

2 Timothy 2:15

“Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth.”


Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics

Part 3


Herman who

Herman WHO???


Hermeneutics1

Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics (Hermeneutic means interpretive), is a branch of philosophy concerned with human understanding and the interpretation of texts.


Name derivation

Name Derivation

Name derived from a Greek word connected with the name of the god “Hermes,” (Mercury) the reputed messenger and interpreter of the gods.


Biblical hermeneutics

Biblical Hermeneutics

“Hermeneutics is a science and art of interpreting the text of scripture.”

[Dr. Milton Terry- Biblical Hermeneutics 1890]


Acts 14 11 13

Acts 14:11-13

  • When the crowd saw what Paul had done, they shouted in the Lycaonian language, "The gods have come down to us in human form!“

  • Barnabas they called Zeus, and Paul they called Hermes because he was the chief speaker.

  • The priest of Zeus, whose temple was just outside the city, brought bulls and wreaths to the city gates because he and the crowd wanted to offer sacrifices to them.


Biblical hermeneutics1

Biblical Hermeneutics

  • Determines how we interpret what the Bible is saying to us - Interpret: make clear – understandable

  • Gives tools to ask intelligent questions about what the Biblical text says, rather than be deceived by what TV, a book, article, or person may say.


There is a difference between

There IS a Difference between…

…Interpretation and

Translation


Interpretation

Interpretation

1. The action of explaining the meaning of something: "the interpretation of data".

2. An explanation or way of explaining: "it's open to interpretation".


Translation

Translation

1. The process of translating words or text from one language into another: "Constantine's translation of Arabic texts into Latin".

2. A written or spoken rendering of the meaning of a word, speech, book, or other text, in another language.


What we must desire to do to seek the message that god intended

What We Must Desire to Do: To seek the Message that God Intended

One Meaning: One Mind.


Rules of scripture interpretation

Rules of Scripture Interpretation

How we interpret Scripture is known as Biblical Hermeneutics.


Principles of interpretation

Principles of Interpretation

  • It is not a hit or miss proposition. It is detailed, carefully spelled out.

  • Both Jewish and Christian scholars have come to basic agreement on principles of interpretation – as far as methodology.


Principles of interpretation1

Principles of Interpretation

The purpose of this course of study is to go through the principles of Hermeneutics.


Written to a specific people

Written to a Specific People:

God’s Word was written by and to a peoplein another time and place in history, people with a different culture, customs, environment, and language. So that thosepeople could understand what God Wanted them to understand.


Contained in god s word are

Contained in God’s Word are:

  • Stories, poetry, literal and figurative language.

  • God’s Word was written by “one mind”: God’s!


Need to realize the bible is a hebraic work

Need to Realize: The Bible is a Hebraic Work

To best understand the Bible, we need to approach it from the Hebraic perspective, since it IS a Hebraic book!


Hebraic hermeneutics

Hebraic Hermeneutics

Studying the Scripture from a Hebraic perspective.


As torah submissive believers in yeshua our messiah and lord

As Torah Submissive Believers in Yeshua, our Messiah and Lord

We believe that the Torah IS applicable and pertinent to ALL Messianic believers: both Jewish and Non-Jewish!


Need to be able to make a defense to our brethren who believe otherwise

Need to be able to make a “defense” to our brethren who believe otherwise!


Studying the word

We Need to Understand Where Others Are Coming From and Relate to them from the Biblical (Hebraic) Perspective!

  • We need to be able to “cross the bridge” to reach out to them.

  • Sha’ul did this with the Athenians at Mar’s Hill in Acts 17:16-31.


Sha ul did not use a single verse of scripture to them

Sha’ul did not use a SINGLE Verse of Scripture to Them

  • Because Scripture did not yet hold authority over them and their lives.

  • He used their poets, philosophers and world-view to reach them!


Likewise we m ust know and relate

Likewise, We Must KNOW and RELATE…

…To those who do not yet grasp our understanding from their OWN world-view and perspective.

  • Then we bring them over the bridge to see ours.

  • This DOESN’T mean that they will come across to our perspective!


That s the job of the ruach hakodesh

That’s the Job of the Ruach haKodesh!

Holy Spirit convicts of sin:


John 16 5 15

John 16:5-15

5 "But now I am going to Him who sent Me; and none of you asks Me, `Where are You going?' 6 "But because I have said these things to you, sorrow has filled your heart. 7 "But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I go, I will send Him to you. 8 "And He, when He comes, will convict the world concerning sin and righteousness and judgment; 9 concerning sin, because they do not believe in Me; 10 and concerning righteousness, because I go to the Father and you no longer see Me; 11 and concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world has been judged.


John 16 5 151

John 16:5-15

12 "I have many more things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. 13 "But when He, the Spirit of truth, comes, He will guide you into all the truth; for He will not speak on His own initiative, but whatever He hears, He will speak; and He will disclose to you what is to come. 14 "He will glorify Me, for He will take of Mine and will disclose it to you. 15 "All things that the Father has are Mine; therefore I said that He takes of Mine and will disclose it to you.


Our job is to bear witness

Our Job is to Bear Witness

His Job is to reveal it to those who see and hear our witness!


Rabbinic hermeneutics

Rabbinic Hermeneutics

Part 4


P a rd e s

PaRDeS

Pardes, which means “paradise” or “garden” in Hebrew, is an acronym for four Hebrew words:

  • P’shat,

  • Remez,

  • Drash,

  • Sod.


The four levels of interpretation

The Four Levels of Interpretation

These are which the rabbis tell us can be applied to every passage of Scripture.


1 p shat the safe and sure road

1) P’shat, the Safe and Sure Road

P’shat literally means “to make a road.” P’shat is also the most important level of interpreting Scripture.


Studying the word

It is the simplest level of interpreting Scripture: What it says is what it means.


Studying the word

As its name suggests, it is like a road winding through the wilderness. To the side of the road are the other levels of interpretation, there to be explored, and as long as we always keep the road in sight and return to it when we are done with our excursion, we’re safe.


Studying the word

But when we forget the road, the plain meaning of Scripture, then we get into trouble.


Studying the word

Therefore, doctrine should never be made solely on a perceived midrash, remez, or sod, but always on the plain meaning of Scripture.


Studying the word

When the Bible says that God tested Abraham’s faith by telling him to sacrifice Isaac, it means that God tested Abraham’s faith by telling him to sacrifice Isaac.


Studying the word

When God told the Israelites to keep certain Appointed Times (mo’edim) or Feasts during the year, they were supposed to literally keep those feasts.


Remez following the hints

Remez: Following the Hints

The second level of Biblical interpretation is the remez, literally the “hint” of something deeper. This “hint” can be something as simple as the name of a place, as subtle as a misspelled word, or as obvious as a prophecy that has as yet unfulfilled elements.


Studying the word

One example of a remezis found in the Akkedah, the account of Isaac’s “sacrifice” by his father Abraham.

As we mentioned before, the p’shatmeaning is that God was testing Abraham’s faith. However, there is also a hint of something else in the narrative: “Abraham called the name of that place The Lord Will Provide, as it is said to this day, "In the mount of the Lord it will be provided” (Genesis 22:14).


Drash midrash digging deeper

Drash: (Midrash) Digging Deeper

The word drashliterally means to “dig” or “search,” while midrash means “teaching” or “learning.”


Sod the secret meaning

Sod: The Secret Meaning

This final, deepest level of meaning is one that we have to treat with the utmost caution. It did indeed give rise to Kabalah, and more than any other level of interpretation has the potential to lead us astray. However, it can only lead us astray if we abandon the road of the p’shat in pursuit of our mystical conjectures.


What is the sod

What is the sod?

Stern defines it as “a mystical or hidden meaning arrived at by operating on the numerical values of the Hebrew letters, noting unusual spellings, transposing letters, and the like. . . The implied presupposition is that God invests meaning in the minutest details of Scripture, even the individual letters.”


Studying the word

The most obvious example of a sod in the NT is the famous Number of the Beast. As early as Irenaeus, it was understood that the name of the Antichrist, when rendered into Hebrew and/or Greek letters, would add up to the number of six hundred and sixty-six according to the numerology of those alphabets. And while the text comes out and states this to be the number, many authors nevertheless regard this as a sod.


Additional rabbinic rules

Additional Rabbinic Rules:

Hillel’s Seven Principles

Rabbi Hillel listed seven principles of interpreting Scripture which are recorded for us in the Talmud (y. Pesahim 33a; cf. Tosefta, Sanhedrin 7:11).


1 kal v chomer simple and complex

1) Kalv’chomer(simple and complex):

Inference from minor to major case (“If such and such is so… how much more so?")


2 gezerah shavah equal commandment

2) Gezerah shavah (equal commandment):

Two biblical commandments having a common word or phrase are subject to the same regulations and applications.


3 binyan av mikatuv echad a sweeping principle derived from one scriptural passage

3) Binyanavmikatuvechad(a sweeping principle [derived] from one scriptural passage):

One scripture serves as a model for the interpretation of others, so that a legal decision based on the one is valid for the others.


4 binyan av mishne ketuvim a sweeping principle derived from two scriptural passages

4) Binyan av mishne ketuvim(a sweeping principle [derived] from two scriptural passages):

Two scriptures having a common characteristic serve as a model for the interpretation of others, so that a legal decision based on the two is valid for the others.


5 kelal uferat uferat ukelal general and particular or particular and general

5) Kelal uferat uferat ukelal(general and particular, or particular and general):

One scripture, general in nature, can be interpreted more precisely by means of a second scripture that is specific, or particular, in nature, and vice versa.


6 kayotse bo bemakom acher like that in another place

6) Kayotse bo bemakom acher(like that in another place):

The interpretation of a scriptural passage by means of another passage having similar content


7 davar halamed me inyano a thing that is learned from the subject

7) Davar halamed me'inyano(a thing that is learned from the subject):

An interpretation of a scripture that is deduced from its context.


Principles in forming drash or remez

Principles in Forming Drashor Remez

Note that these principles are consistent with forming a midrashor remez, as they form a basis for identifying two passages which are linked by language even when they are not thematically, and for identifying oddities in the text.


Studying the word

Someone once said, “The Bible is shallow enough for a child to wade in it, but deep enough for an elephant to immerse in it.” Indeed this is true, and the hour is far too late for mature believers to stay splashing in the kiddie pool. There is a depth and richness to the Scriptures that we have but barely scratched the surface of; we complain that we want more milk when the Eternal One offers us a steak dinner. Let us then obey the Bible and the example of the Apostles:


Studying the word

Therefore, leaving behind the initial lessons about the Messiah, let us go on to maturity, not laying again the foundation of turning from works that lead to death, trusting God, and instruction about washings, s'mikhah (laying of hands), the resurrection of the dead and eternal punishment. And, God willing, this is what we will do. (Hebrews 6:1-3, CJB)


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