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Fishbone Diagrams (cause and effect, or Ishikawa diagrams). John Ham OISM 470W. Overview (1 of 2). Definition Uses Ishikawa Use within organizations benefits Creation of the Diagram Steps 1-9. Overview (2 of 2). Example Service example Exercise Ham Industries.

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Fishbone diagrams cause and effect or ishikawa diagrams

Fishbone Diagrams(cause and effect, or Ishikawa diagrams)

John Ham

OISM 470W


Overview 1 of 2
Overview (1 of 2)

  • Definition

    • Uses

    • Ishikawa

  • Use within organizations

    • benefits

  • Creation of the Diagram

    • Steps 1-9


Overview 2 of 2
Overview (2 of 2)

  • Example

    • Service example

  • Exercise

    • Ham Industries


Fishbone cause and effect or ishikawa diagrams 1 of 4
Fishbone (Cause and Effect or Ishikawa) Diagrams (1 of 4)

  • Named after Kaoru Ishikawa

    • Japanese Quality pioneer

  • Resembles skeleton of a fish

  • Focus on causes rather than symptoms of a problem

  • Emphasizes group communication and brainstorming

  • Stimulates discussion


Fishbone cause and effect or ishikawa diagrams 2 of 4
Fishbone (Cause and Effect or Ishikawa) Diagrams (2 of 4)

  • One of Seven basic tools of Japanese Quality

  • Leads to increased understanding of complex problems

  • Visual and presentational tool


Fishbone cause and effect or ishikawa diagrams 3 of 4
Fishbone (Cause and Effect or Ishikawa) Diagrams (3 of 4)

  • Typically done on paper or chalkboard

  • Recently some computer programs have been created to make Fishbone Diagrams

    • Ishikawa Environment


Use in organizations 1 of 2
Use in Organizations (1 of 2)

  • Can be used to improve any product, process, or service

    • Any area of the company that is experiencing a problem

    • Isolates all relevant causes


Use in organizations 2 of 2
Use in Organizations (2 of 2)

  • Helps bring a problem into light

    • Group discussion and brainstorming

    • Finds reasons for quality variations, and the relationships between them


Creating fishbone diagrams 1 of 4
Creating Fishbone Diagrams (1 of 4)

  • As a group:

    1. Establish problem (effect)

    -state in clear terms

    -agreed upon by entire group

    2. Problem becomes the “head” of the fish

    -draw line to head (“backbone”)


Creating a fishbone diagram 2 of 4
Creating a Fishbone Diagram (2 of 4)

  • Decide major causes of the problem

    - by brainstorming

    - if the effect or problem is part of a process the major steps in the process can be used

    4. Connect major causes to backbone of the fish with slanting arrows


Creating a fishbone diagram 3 of 4
Creating a Fishbone Diagram (3 of 4)

5. Brainstorm secondary causes for each of the major causes

6. Connect these secondary causes to their respective major causes

7. Repeat steps 5 & 6 for sub- causes dividing with increased specificity

- usually four or five levels


Creating a fishbone diagram 4 of 4
Creating a Fishbone Diagram (4 of 4)

8. Analyze and evaluate causes and sub-causes

-may require the use of statistical, analytical, and graphical tools

9. Decide and take action


Example 1 of 4
Example (1 of 4)

  • Step 1 & 2:

Poor Service

(“backbone”)

(“head”)


Example 2 of 4
Example (2 of 4)

  • Step 3 & 4:

Responsiveness

Appearance

Poor Service

Attention

Reliability


Example 3 of 4
Example (3 of 4)

  • Step 5, 6, & 7:

Responsiveness

Appearance

time

equipment

personnel

facility

Poor Service

accuracy

One on one service

courtesy

dependability

Reliability

Attention


Example 4 of 4
Example (4 of 4)

  • Step 8 & 9:

    • Use tools to analyze and evaluate causes

      • Pareto diagrams, charts, and graphs

      • Statistical analysis for causes in processes

    • Decide and take action

      • Use fishbone diagram, analysis and evaluations to find causes that can be fixed

      • Take action to eliminate and fix problem causes


Exercise
Exercise

  • Create a Fishbone (cause and effect, Ishikawa) Diagram for the following:

    Management at Ham Industries has noticed that the productivity of its workers is well below the standard. After interviewing its employees, it was noticed that a vast majority felt dissatisfied and unhappy with their work. Your boss has asked you and a group of your peers to find the causes of worker dissatisfaction . Include all possible causes to at least the secondary level.


Summary 1 of 3
Summary (1 of 3)

  • Fishbone Diagrams

    - visual diagram

    - resembles fish skeleton

    - identifies the causes of a problem (effect), and their relationships

    - created by Kaoru Ishikawa for Quality Management


Summary 2 of 3
Summary (2 of 3)

  • Organizational Uses

    • Increases communication about problems

    • Used to improve any product, process, or service

    • Important part of quality management


Summary 3 of 3
Summary (3 of 3)

  • Creation of Fishbone diagrams

    • Problem or effect is head of fish

    • Identify major, secondary and tertiary causes, and attach to backbone identifying relationships

    • Analyze and Evaluate results

    • Act to fix the problem(s)


Bibliography
Bibliography

//home.t-online.de/home/kfmaas/q_ishika.html

www.zi.unizh.ch/software/unix/statmath/sas/sasdoc/qc/chap17/sect1.htm

www.dti.gov.uk/mbp/bpgt/m9ja00001/m9ja0000110.html

Foster, S. Thomas. Managing Quality: An Integrative Approach. 2001, Prentice-Hall


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