Conducting research via interviews
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Conducting Research via Interviews. Collecting & analyzing interview data Sekaran & Saks Texts Example of structured interview Rudermann et al article. Why conduct interviews. To form OR test hypotheses To identify samples needed for hypothesis-testing research

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Conducting Research via Interviews

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Conducting research via interviews

Conducting Researchvia Interviews

  • Collecting & analyzing interview data

    • Sekaran & Saks Texts

  • Example of structured interview

    • Rudermann et al article


Why conduct interviews

Why conduct interviews

  • To form OR test hypotheses

    • To identify samples needed for hypothesis-testing research

  • To gather more detailed info

    • Before vs. after data collection


Issues to consider

Issues to consider

  • Interview Participants

  • Methods of interviewing

  • How to increase interviewee motivation

  • Structure of interviews

  • Avoiding Bias

  • Questioning Techniques


Interview participants

Interview Participants

  • Opportunity vs. Representative samples

    • Benefits to generalization

  • Benefits to having formal/informal group Leaders in org/market research

    • Source of ‘rich’ data

    • Adding credibility to study


Interview methods

Interview Methods

  • Face-Face

  • Telephone


Interview methods1

Interview Methods

  • Face to face

    • Direct observation

      • Non-verbal body cues, work context, response to physical/visual stimuli

    • Cost

      • Time, geographic constraints, more personnel, safety


Interview methods2

Interview Methods

  • Telephone

    • Response rate issues

      • Relatively higher than face-face interview

    • Completion rate issues

    • Restricts complexity & length of interview


Interviewee motivation

Interviewee motivation

  • Interviewees perceptions of the value of research

  • Providing information about Sponsor

  • Rapport

    • Interviewer’s Listening skills & empathy

  • Topic & format

  • Setting

    • Work vs. non-work


Interview structure

Interview Structure

  • Unstructured

  • Structured


Interview structure1

Interview Structure

  • Unstructured

    • Uncover preliminary issues to identify variables needing further study

    • Broad, open questions

      • Job-level and work type

    • Monosyllabic answers

    • Positive vs. negative responses

    • Non-cooperative interviewees

    • Supervisory vs. non-supervisory employees

Sekaran


Interview structure2

Interview Structure

  • Structured Interviews

    • Qs focus on relevant factors

    • Each P asked same qs

      • Sometimes deviate from interview protocol to uncover new factors

    • Use of Visual aids & physical stimuli

      • Marketing, children, issues that are hard to articulate

    • Advantages over questionnaire

    • Terminating data collection

Sekaran, Saks


Avoiding bias

Avoiding Bias

  • Sources of Interviewer bias

    • Lack of trust & rapport

    • Mis-interpretation/distortion responses

    • Encouraging or discouraging certain types of responses via gestures/facial expressions

    • Not Listening attentively

    • Not Paraphrasing answers

    • Not Repeating/clarifying questions

    • Not Being tactful

Sekaran


Avoiding bias1

Avoiding Bias

  • Sources of Interviewee Bias

    • Not revealing true opinions/experiences

    • Interviewee says what s/he thinks interviewer wants to hear

    • Not understanding questions

    • Not liking interviewer

    • Giving ‘socially desirable’ responses

Sekaran


Avoiding bias2

Avoiding Bias

  • Situational bias

    • Reasons for non-participation

      • Unwillingness, inability

    • Different levels of rapport/trust across different participants/interviewers

    • Physical setting

      • Degree to which it inhibits honesty

Sekaran


Questioning techniques

Questioning Techniques

  • Funnel technique

    • Sequence & Level of specificity of questions

    • Familiarity w/interviewee’s understanding

    • Contamination of responses

    • Perceived spontaneity, decreased self-consciousness, rapport

    • Probes & follow-up qs

Sekaran, Saks


Questioning techniques1

Questioning Techniques

  • Unbiased questioning

    • Loaded/leading questions

  • Clarifying Issues

    • Re-stating/rephrasing

  • Helping respondent think through issues

    • Rephrase depending on verbalization ability

Sekaran


Questioning techniques note taking

Questioning TechniquesNote Taking

  • Intrusiveness

    • Focus on summarizing

    • Focus on behavior

  • Effect on self-consciousness

  • Effect on rapport

  • Permission for taping

    • Effects on interviewee inhibition

  • Take notes (or tape) after interview

Saks


Conducting research via interviews1

Conducting Researchvia Interviews

  • Collecting & analyzing interview data

    • Sekaran & Saks Texts

  • Example of structured interview

    • Rudermann et al article


Rudermann et al study

Rudermann et al Study

  • Benefits of non-job roles for managerial women

    • Hypothesis: Experiences in personal roles enrich managerial skills

      • What percentage of women mention this hypothesis in their interviews?

      • What percentage of all responses to interviews support this hypothesis?


Participants

Participants

  • 74% of women participating in a women-only leadership devel’t prg

  • Avg. Age=40 (range=26-57)

  • 92% White

  • Avg. Salary =~78K (SD= ~32k)


Participants1

Participants

  • Rank

    • Middle =49%,

    • Upper middle =34% Figure?

    • Exec=17%

  • 51% had post-graduate education

  • 50% had children under 18 yrs

  • 71% in committed relationships

  • 84% in Fortune 500 corporations


Procedure

Procedure

  • Faxed qs to participants a few days before interview

  • Pilot tested interview qs on 28 women managers

  • Tape-recorded and transcribed each interview


Measures

Measures

  • Open-ended questions on

    • Different types of roles managers held

    • Challenges faced in roles

  • Are there any dimensions/aspects of personal life that enhance your professional life?

  • Use of follow up qs and probes to obtain details on roles


Data analysis

Data Analysis

  • Applied grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967)

  • Coding techniques Boyatzis (1998)

    • Developed initial hypotheses during interviews with pilot and study 1 participants


Interview coding

Interview Coding

  • 2 raters read 30 interviews many times

  • Developed excerpts of each P’s answer

  • Summarized excerpts

  • Organized summaries & sample quotes

  • Compared & contrasted quotes and summaries for each case to id 13 patterns & themes

  • Examined remaining interviews for add’l themes


Interview coding1

Interview Coding

  • 13 themes reduced to 6 categories

  • Reviewed all excerpts to confirm categorization

  • Developed codebook explaining 6 themes

    • 66.7% to 90.9% inter-rater agreement on coding of themes

      • Not good according to Boyatzis, 1998


Results

Non-work roles provide…

% of Sample Stating

% Rater Agree-ment

Opportunities to enhance inter-personal skills

42

90.2

Psychological benefits

23

75.9

Emotional support & advice

19

90.9

Results


Discussion

Discussion

  • Tentative support for hypothesis

  • Alternative ways of presenting data to support hypothesis


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