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Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes. Gilda Bastasi, P.dt.,CDE Telehealth Presentation March 27, 2007. Montreal , Quebec . What is most important. Eat well Control your weight Exercise If you take medication for diabetes, take it as prescribed Check your blood sugar daily if possible.

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Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes

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Nutrition in type 2 diabetes l.jpg

Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes

Gilda Bastasi, P.dt.,CDE

Telehealth Presentation

March 27, 2007

Montreal , Quebec


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What is most important

  • Eat well

  • Control your weight

  • Exercise

  • If you take medication for diabetes, take it as prescribed

  • Check your blood sugar daily if possible


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How do we EAT WELL?

  • Respect QUANTITY

  • Choose the right QUALITY

    • Limit sugars and sweets, not avoid

    • Limit high fat foods

      • Fried foods, chips and pastries

    • Eat more fibre

      • Brown breads, dried beans, brown rice

  • Eat at REGULAR times

    • Three meals per day

    • Correct spacing of 4 to 6 hours


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Control your weight

  • Do you need to lose weight??

    • If you are overweight, losing 10 to 20 pounds will help you get better control of your diabetes

  • Fat, especially animal fat, intake should be limited

    • Fat has the most calories

    • helps to keep weight down

    • Keeps a healthy heart!

  • GET MOVING!!

    • Exercise at least 150 minutes per week

    • Exercise when blood sugars are higher


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Quantity : What is a portion?

  • You must watch HOW MUCH you eat especially foods that contain sugar or carbohydrate

  • Using the “sugar cube method” will help you decide if you are eating well or not


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Using sugar cubes to help with quantity

  • Generally, most food contains some kind of sugar

    • Especially breads, rice, fruit, pastas

  • 1 teaspoon of sugar= 1 sugar cube

  • General recommendations

    • 9 to 12 cubes per meal

    • 3 cubes per snack


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How many in these foods?

  • Grains and starches:

    • 1 slice bread = 3 cubes

    • ½ cup pasta or rice= 3 cubes

    • ½ potato or ½ cup corn = 3 cubes

  • Fruit and vegetables:

    1 small fresh fruit = 3 cubes

    ½ -3/4 cup juice = 3 cubes

    ½ cup carrots, peas, turnip or beets = 3


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How many in these foods?

  • Milk Products

    • 1 cup milk = 3 cubes

    • 1 cup plain yogurt = 3 cubes

    • ½ cup fruit flavoured yogurt = 2 -3 cubes

  • Other foods

    • 1can regular Coke = 9 cubes

    • 1 small piece of pie = 9 cubes

    • 1 tablespoon of regular jam= 3 cubes


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Quantity : the perfect plate

National nutrition committee Canadian diabetes association


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Let’s calculate together....

1apple= 3 cubes

1 potato = 3 cubes

½ cup carrots = 3 cubes

1 piece of meat = 0 cubes

Broccoli = 0 cubes

TOTAL = 12 cubes

1 Cup milk= 3 cubes


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Quantity: Use your hands to measure

Palm of hands: approximate size of

meat one should eat

The fist portion applies to starches and

fruit

Both hands cupped together and

overflowing represent a portion of

vegetables or salad

High fat foods such as chips and nuts

are limited to a portion that fits in one

cupped hand


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Quality : Healthy eating

  • Grains and Starches

    • whole grain bread, grains, pastas, rice, potatoes or corn AT EVERY MEAL!

    • Limit use of cakes, pies, desserts

  • Fruits and vegetables

    • Eat more vegetables

      • Include at least 5 fruits and vegetables per day

      • Have fruit as your dessert at every meal

  • Protein foods

    • Lean meat, poultry, fish, low fat cheese ,eggs or nuts

  • Milk

    • Have a glass of milk or yogurt to finish your meal


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Grains and Starches

  • RECOMMENDED SERVINGS

    • 2 to 3 servings per meal

  • Here are some examples of one serving

    • 1 slice whole grain bread

    • ¾ cup bran cereal

    • ½ cup pasta

    • 1/3 cup brown rice

    • 1 small potato

    • ½ cup corn


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Fruits and Vegetables

  • Recommended servings

    • Eat 3 to 7 servings a day

      • At least 3 should be fruit

    • Aim for 1 fruit and 1-2 vegetables at each meal

    • You can use fresh, frozen or canned

    • Fresh has more fibre than juice

    • Most vegetables contain little calories and sugar

  • What is a serving?

    • Generally ½ cup of fruit or vegetable


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Don’t forget Milk Products !!

  • Recommended servings

    • Have at least 2 low fat servings of milk or milk products per day

    • 1 serving = 1 cup

  • Choose milk and yogurt with 1% fat or less

    • Use sugar free or plain yogurt

    • Plain soya milk

    • You can eat ice cream, frozen yogurt or pudding occasionally

  • Choose cheese with 20 % milk fat or less


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No sugar in meat..but watch out for fat !!

  • Have a source of protein like fish, chicken, tofu, meat, eggs, low fat cheese, nuts or peanut butter at every meal

  • Do not fry

  • Remove visible fat

  • Eat portion like the palm of your hand


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Fats

  • Choose heart healthy fats

    • Canola oil, olive oil

    • Non- hydrogenated margarine

    • Small portions of nuts

      • No more than 20 nuts per day

      • Choose food labelled “no trans fats”


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What about sweeteners?

  • Sweeteners that INCREASE blood sugar:

    • Sugar alcohols: Lactilol, maltilol, Mannitol, Sorbitol, Xylitol

    • Polydextrose

  • Sweeteners that DO NOT increase blood sugar:

    • Aspartame (Equal, Nutrasweet

    • Cyclamate (Sucaryl, Sugar Twin, Sweet n Low)

    • Saccarin (Hermesetas)

    • Sucralose (Splenda)


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Is alcohol allowed?

  • Do not take more than two drinks per day

    • Two for men, one for women

    • 1 drink = 1 bottle of beer

    • 3.5 ounces of wine

    • 1.5 ounces of hard liquor

  • Be careful!

    • Never drink on an empty stomach especially if you take medication


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A little bit of everything....

  • A small serving of lean meat

  • A good quantity of colourful vegetables

  • Always have some starch like whole grain bread, rice or corn

  • Finish the meal with some low fat plain yogurt with fresh fruit

  • Respect your quantities

  • Never skip a meal!


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Let’s build a “good” breakfast....

  • 2 servings grains and starches 2 slices brown bread

  • 1 lean protein 1 ounce low fat cheese

  • 1 fruit 1 small banana

  • 1 milk product ¾ cup plain yogurt

  • 1 fat 1 tsp of margarine

  • Other foods sugar free jam


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