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An Improved UDP Protocol for Video Transmission Over Internet-to-Wireless Networks. Haitao Zheng and Jill Boyce. IEEE Transaction on Multimedia. Leif 9/10/01. Outline. Introduction Improved UDP Design Packet Coding Design Analytical Performance Conclusion Further Work.

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An improved udp protocol for video transmission over internet to wireless networks
An Improved UDP Protocol for Video Transmission Over Internet-to-Wireless Networks

Haitao Zheng and Jill Boyce

IEEE Transaction on Multimedia

Leif 9/10/01


Outline
Outline Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Introduction

  • Improved UDP Design

  • Packet Coding Design

  • Analytical Performance

  • Conclusion

  • Further Work


Introduction 1 3
Introduction (1/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Packet video will become a signification portion of emerging and further wireless/Internet traffic.

  • Network congestion and wireless channel error yield tremendous packet loss and degraded video quality.

  • Most Internet-based real-time multimedia services employ UDP.


Introduction 2 3
Introduction (2/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • UDP: no retransmission (delay), CRC

  • Reliable UDP(RUDP):

    Retransmission and CRC (header and payload)

  • UDP Lite:

    no retransmission, CRC (head only)


Introduction 3 3
Introduction (3/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Employing forward error correction (FEC) code to the application packets can mitigate channel unreliability and improve media quality.

  • eg. Reed-Solomon (RS) codes.

    (n, k) RS codeword: the encoder chooses k packets and generates n – k parity packets. It can correct n – k erasures.


Improved udp design 1 3
Improved UDP Design (1/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • New interface between RLP and PPP, PPP and IP, IP and UDP, so that certain information can be exchanged in both directions.

  • The improved UDP should apply CRC to the packet header only and forward the packet payload to the application.


Improved udp design 2 3
Improved UDP Design (2/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Type1:LTU Error Indicator

    (For FEC decoders that require erasure indicator)

    Error indicators contain the starting and ending location of the erroneous frame.

  • Type2:Reformatted Packet

    (For FEC decoders that can recognize erasures)


Improved udp design 3 3
Improved UDP Design (3/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Complete UDP (CUDP) captures the error-free frames and the location of erroneous frames.

  • When combined with FEC coding, CUDP turns erroneous frames into erasure frames so that the other error-free frames can be utilized to recover the loss.


Packet coding design 1 3
Packet Coding Design (1/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Vertical Packet Coding (VPC)

    The FEC encoder takes one data unit from each of k packets and generates (n - k) parity units (additional packets). It can recover (n - k) erasure packets.

  • eg. fig. 3. (a)

    MDS code (n, k) ~ (7, 4) It can recover 7 – 4 = 3 erasure packets.

  • VPC provides transparent Internet-to-Wireless communications. The UDP within the Internet remains unchanged.


Packet coding design 2 3
Packet Coding Design (2/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Long Vertical Packet Coding (LVPC)

  • For a fixed ratio (n - k)/n, the MDS codes achieve better error/erasure correction efficiency as n increases.

  • MDS code (n, k) value↗  burst error resiliency ↗

    X/L MDS (nL, kL) L : column number

    eg. Fig. 3. (b)

    L = m = 7(nL, kL) ~ (49, 28)

    49 – 28 = 21

  • If the decoder fails, all the erasures can not be recovered.


Packet coding design 3 3
Packet Coding Design (3/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

Fig. 3.


Analytical performance error model
Analytical Performance Internet-to-Wireless NetworksError Model

Two states, good (G), and bad (B)

Transmission probability between the two states PGB and PBG present the error model.


VPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

GPER

FER

Fig. 5.


LVPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

GPER

FER

Fig. 6.


Internet to wireless vpc
Internet-to-wireless, VPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

GPER

FER

Fig. 7.


Internet to wireless lvpc
Internet-to-wireless, LVPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

GPER

FER

Fig. 8.


Cudp vpc lvpc
CUDP, VPC, LVPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

GPER

FER

Fig. 9.


Psnr for internet wireless with vpc
PSNR for Internet + Wireless with VPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

PSNR

Fig. 10.

FER


Psnr for internet wireless with vpc1
PSNR for Internet + Wireless with VPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

PSNR

Congestion Packed Loss Rate

Fig. 11.


Psnr for internet wireless with vpc2
PSNR for Internet + Wireless with VPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

PSNR

Fig. 12.


Conclusion 1 2
Conclusion (1/2) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • CUDP provides great flexibility for applications to utilize the instantaneous physical/link layer performance report. The media decoder has the right to decide whether to use or discard the packet.

  • CUDP outperforms the other two protocols. However, as the congestion packet loss rate grows, the advantage of CUDP shrinks.


Conclusion 2 2
Conclusion (2/2) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Using CUDP, the received video maintains good quality.


Further work
Further Work Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Could the proposed system be applied to other packet video/audio/image?

  • Taking into account of the delay due to RLP layer…

  • And the packet loss due to real-time scheduling within wireless networks.


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