Chemistry Fundamentals: Part 1
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Chemistry Fundamentals: Part 1. SBI4U. A. X. Z. Isotopes. Isotopes are atoms of the same element but have different numbers of neutrons. Mass number, number of protons AND neutrons. Element Symbol (i.e. Au). Atomic Number, number of protons.

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Sbi4u

Chemistry Fundamentals: Part 1

SBI4U


Sbi4u

A

X

Z

Isotopes

Isotopes are atoms of the same element but have different numbers of neutrons.

Mass number, number of protons AND neutrons

Element Symbol (i.e. Au)

Atomic Number, number of protons

So, how do we calculate the number of neutrons?

For a given element, which part never changes?


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Bonding

There are two types of bonds:

Chemical

and

Physical


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Chemical Bonds

  • Depend on valence of electrons (refer to page 12)

    • Periodic table is grouped according to valence number

  • Types of chemical bonds: ionic or covalent

  • Type of chemical bond depends on character of the elements involved

    • Ionic = positively charged metal + negatively charged non-metal

    • Covalent = neutral non-metal + neutral non-metal


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Electronegativity & Polarity

  • Electronegativity is a measure of an atom's attraction for electrons in the covalent bond

  • If an element has a high electronegativity, it will pull electrons closer to its nucleus

  • Since electrons are negatively charged, the atom attains a partial negative charge

  • This results in a polar bond so that the electrons are shared unequally


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Electronegativity & Polarity

  • Covalent bonds can be broken down into two types:

    • Polar bonds

    • Non-polar bonds

  • Polarity depends on the electronegativities of the two atoms involved in the chemical bond (refer to page 14)

  • If there is no difference in electronegativity, the covalent bond is considered nonpolar


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Electronegativity & Polarity

  • If the difference in electronegativity is between 0 and 1.7, the covalent bond is polar

  • Fluorine and Oxygen have very high electronegativities but oxygen is the most Biologically significant since it is much more plentiful than fluorine


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Physical Bonds

  • Physical bonds form BETWEEN MOLECULES (chemical bonds form between atoms)

  • There are three types of physical bonds:

    • London dispersion forces (weakest)

    • Dipole-Dipole forces

    • Hydrogen bonds(strongest)

  • Please read p17 and make notes on these three types

  • Hydrogen bonds occur amongst polar molecules

van der Waals forces


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Summary

London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonds

Ionic or Covalent

Intramolecular

Intermolecular

Strongest

Generally Weaker


Redox reactions

Redox Reactions.

Reduction

Oxidation


Oxidation numbers

Oxidation Numbers

  • The oxidation number of an atom in an element is zero. E.g. Mg in Mg, O in O2.


Oxidation numbers1

Oxidation Numbers

  • The oxidation numbers of atoms in a compound add up to zero.

Oxidation state of Mg in MgCl2?

+2


Oxidation numbers2

Oxidation Numbers

  • The oxidation numbers of atoms in a compound add up to zero.

Oxidation state of N in NH3?

-3


Leo ger

LEO GER

  • Oxidation:

  • Gain of oxygen

  • Loss of electrons

  • Reduction:

  • Loss of oxygen

  • Gain of electrons

Increase in

oxidation

number

Decrease in

oxidation

number


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Which one is oxidized? Reduced?


But in biology

But in Biology…

  • Oxidation:

  • Loss of Hydrogen atoms

  • Reduction:

  • Gain of Hydrogen atoms


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Homework

  • Do “Are you Ready” p. 4-5

  • Read p. 6-19 (skip hybridization)

  • What are radioisotopes? How can they be used in the medical field? (use page 8-9)

  • Make notes on types of bonds – intramolecular and intermolecular *polarity & electronegativity – how are they related?

  • Do #15-16 on p. 23


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