Employee Relations
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Sample on employee relations

Employee Relations

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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 1

TASK1: UNDERSTANDING THE CONTEXT OF EMPLOYEE RELATIONS AGAINST A

CHANGING ENVIRONMENT ..................................................................................................... 1

1.1Unitary and pluralistic frames of reference ........................................................................... 1

1.2 Assessing that how changes in the trade unionism can affect employee relation ................ 2

1.3 Explaining the role of main players in employee relation .................................................... 3

TASK 2: UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT AND ITS

RESOLUTION ............................................................................................................................... 4

2.1 Explain the procedure that organization should follow while dealing with different conflict

situation ....................................................................................................................................... 4

2.2 Explaining the key features of employee relation in the selected conflicting situation ........ 6

2.3 Evaluating the effectiveness of procedure that is used in the selected conflicting situation 6

TASK 3: UNDERSTANDING COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND NEGOTIATION

PROCESS ....................................................................................................................................... 7

3.1Explaining the role of negotiation in a collective bargaining ................................................ 7

3.2 Assessing the impact of negotiation strategy on the given situation .................................... 8

TASK 4 UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT OF EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION AND

INVOLVEMENT ......................................................................................................................... 10

4.1 Assessing the influence of EU on industrial democracy in UK ......................................... 10

4.2 Compare methods used to gain employee participation and involvement in the decision

making process in organization ................................................................................................ 10

4.3 Assessing the impact that human resource management has on the employee relation ..... 11

CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 12

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 13

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INTRODUCTION

Employee relation refers to the type of relationship that takes place between the staff

members that are present in the workplace and in turn, encourages them to work for the welfare

of enterprise. In short, it can be defined as the interaction that takes place between top

management and employees of the company. Employee relations play a very important role in

organization as through this, staff members can be encouraged to work for the betterment of

entity and in turn acts as a development tool. Positive environment can be provided to employees

by building healthy relationship with them and can support the enterprise in achieving targeted

goals and objectives (Analoui, 2000). In the present report, firm chosen is British airways that

has operated in aviation sector and is well known in the market for range of services which it

offers to target market. Company is listed in London stock exchange in the year 1987 and

employs around 57000 staff members in the workplace. Main objective of entity is to provide

best services to its valuable customers for which fair environment is provided to employees and

they are given with different opportunities through which they can be encouraged to take

initiatives in the welfare of organization. Various tasks have been covered in the report which

includes unitary and pluralistic frame of references and key features of employee relations that

are selected in conflict situation.

TASK1: UNDERSTANDING THE CONTEXT OF EMPLOYEE

RELATIONS AGAINST A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

1.1Unitary and pluralistic frames of reference

The feature is linked with employee relations that can be perceived in two different ways

such as unitary and pluralistic frames of reference. Both approaches have different views and

perception that are associated with the way through which relations among staff members can be

managed in British airways for its welfare. Unitary perspective of ER relies on the belief that

power to take crucial decisions within organization tends to reside in the hand of one individual

which is regarded as the management of enterprise (Armstrong, 2005). In short, employees that

are working at the top level have power to take major decision for its benefit. Furthermore, this

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perspective also represents that leaders present in British airways have the main responsibility of

promoting commitment as well as loyalty among staff members. Further, this approach also

states that in organization, different types of team work together for the accomplishment of

targeted objectives and for increasing the overall efficiency of company. It basically depends on

the assumption that conflicts which are taking place between staff members and managers does

not occurs due to varied interest (Burnes, 2003). The unitary perspective of ER believes that role

of trade union is ineffective as it has been analyzed that this union does not support at the time of

conflict that takes place between staff members and managers of company such as in British

airways (Unitarist perspectives, 2015). Such conflicts reduce the overall efficiency level and it is

not possible for the management to carry out operations in an efficient manner and it can also

lead to decline in satisfaction level of customers.

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But on the other hand, pluralistic approach depends on another perspective with respect

to the employee relation. This approach is based on the belief that workplace is composed of

different types of attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviours. As per this approach, management of

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the company plays role of mediator where trade union also plays a significant role within

business enterprise because with the help of such union, decision making power is given to the

staff members that are present in the workplace (Fombrun, Tichy and Devanna, 2005). In

addition to this, pluralistic approach considers that stability in ER can be accomplished by

performing series of concessions and negotiations between managers and staff members with the

help of collective bargaining process. These can be considered as the two perspective of

employee relation. By taking help from particular approach, British airways can decide whether

it is beneficial for it to develop trade unions within entity or not.

1.2 Assessing that how changes in the trade unionism can affect employee relation

Alteration which is taking place in the trade unionism directly affects the employee

relations. Trade union is considered as the society of workers and union leader that unite together

with an objective to safeguard and promote their common interest like increasing their pay scale

and other benefits as well as demand for fair working environment (Trade union in UK, 2015). In

the mid of 19th century, union movement of the country was under control of Moderate new

model unions. In the year 1824, trade union came into legal action and in this year, large number

of workers that are present in the firm joined association with an objective to get fair wages as

per their work and other condition present in the entity. Furthermore, various unions have been

analyzed that carries out their operations in UK. It involves trade union congress community and

youth worker union along with communication worker union. On the other hand, different

changes are taking place in the trade unionism that have been determined and has direct impact

on the employee relations in British airways (Nutley, 2004). Variation in the trade unionism

takes place due to the variation in type of macro environmental factors which are shown below:

Political and legal: Implementation of new laws and rules within economy directly

affects the aspect that is linked with employee relationship in British airways in an

effective manner. For instance, government has introduced different policies linked with

providing equal opportunities to staff members that are present in the firm such as British

airways. This type of condition develops conflict between employer and trade union.

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Further, this type of conflict takes place when company does not complies with the

practices introduced by regulatory authorities of the nation. So, due to this, conflict

relationship between trade union and organization can be affected badly. Furthermore,

direct impact of this can be seen on the profitability and sales of entity (Paauwe, 2003).

Technological: It is a well known fact that when company adopts any technology in

workplace then demand for workers reduces due to this. As a result of it, British airways

are encouraged to comply with the practices that are associated with retrenchment of

workers. In this type of condition, trade union plays the role of protector and in this role;

union protects staff members that are working in firm from being retrenched from the

job. This type of situation hinders the relationship between British airways and union.

Further, in this type of condition, workers prefer to adopt practices such as lockout and

strikes which badly affects sales and profitability of the company (Parker, 2001).

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Trade unionism has been developed with the aim to support business operations with staff

members welfare by bridging the gap between management and staff members. It is required for

trade unions to reinvent themselves so as to sustain for long term. Further, after the year 1979

trade unionism has become one of the biggest enterprise in the country. Where number of

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members stayed around 7.3 million. After this year trade union played significant role in

protecting interest of its members. Before this time period several conflicts were taking place in

the unionism due to which it has adverse impact on the entire country. Further, main aim of trade

unionism is to protect right of all the staff members. Moreover, roles are assumed in case of

every enterprise and society (McCauley, 2012). Apart from this, after the year 1979 effective

strategies were developed with the motive to protect staff members working in organization and

this acted as an development tool for the business. Therefore, in this way the changes taking

place in the trade unionism has affected employee relations within the workplace.

1.3 Explaining the role of main players in employee relation

To maintain healthy relationship between staff members and employers is not easy and it

is not the work of single individual in a workplace and requires collective efforts. So, with this

regard, different types of individual have been identified that plays a significant role in order to

comply with the aspect such as employee relation. The main players are shown below:

Manager: Managers present in British airways plays an important role in terms of

building relationship between employees and employers. Managers of the firm have duty

to provide effective environment to staff members so that they can perform efficiently.

Furthermore, managers of British airways play a crucial role in managing criticisms that

takes place between workers (Holbeche, 2013). It is their main duty to encourage healthy

competition at workplace in order to enhance overall performance. On the other hand,

their responsibility is to increase the motivational level of staff members through

different techniques. By complying with such type of activities, positive relationship can

be developed between employers and employees easily (Role of manager in employee’s

relationship, 2015). Furthermore, this can help British airways in accomplishment of

targeted goals and objective in an efficient manner. Manager acts as a negotiator in

organization and they discuss with the representative of staff members. In addition to

this, managers at top level provides mediate way with an objective to deal with the

situations such as strike etc (Jackson, Schuler and Werner, 2011).

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Government agencies: Government develops various laws and regulations which British

airways have to follow strictly in its workplace. It involves various acts as child labour

laws, minimum wage act and new amendments in the health and safety act. Through such

type of policies and laws, government builds healthy relationship between employers and

employees. It directly supports in raising the commitment of staff members towards firm.

Workers: Workers have the main duty to carry out their tasks that are being assigned to

them by employers (Marchington and Wilkinson, 2012). Furthermore, they have the

responsibility to comply with these laws and regulations which are developed by the

management of British airways. In addition to this, they must take active participation in

different types of programs that are being organized by the company. Therefore, by

complying with such type of activities, healthy relationship between workers and

employers can be developed easily. This is usually hindered when staff members does not

prefer to comply with practices that are being assigned to them. Further, staff members

exchange their thoughts with the management of entity and raise their voice against

injustice.

TASK 2: UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT

AND ITS RESOLUTION

2.1 Explain the procedure that organization should follow while dealing with different conflict

situation

Different types of procedures are present that British airways should follow at the time of

dealing with different type of conflicts or disputes such as strikes and collective disputes etc.

These are being regarded as three major types of conflicts that can take place within business

enterprise (Marsden, Caffrey and McCaffery, 2013). Collective dispute can occur within

enterprise because of the presence of different types of aspects such as ineffective physical

environment along with the alteration in terms and condition of employment and ineffective

allocation of work etc. In all these circumstances, staff members raise their voice against

managers. So, as a result, it leads to rise in conflicting situations within British airways. For

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instance, ineffective allocation of work related situation arises in front of company when

activities are divided according to the gender basis.

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Therefore, conflicts can occur when management of British airways assigns simple duties and

responsibilities to its female staff members. So such type of conditions raises disputes between

employees in the workplace. In order to resolve such type of issues, British airways have to

adopt different procedures through which disputes can be handled efficiently (Mathis and

Jackson, 2011). The process starts by carrying out discussion within the firm. After conducting

discussion in an effective way, solution will be found and entire conflict will be referred to the

executive director of human resource manager of British airways. With this regard, time limit of

6 days will be allotted to HR managers of firm with respect to take actions in advance to resolve

the conflicts that can take place within an organization. After the completion of a given period,

present conflicts will be referred to the dispute committee that is developed by management. So

all these type of disputes will be settled in the given step and in case if they are not resolved, then

alternative dispute procedure can be used by British airways for settlement.

On the other hand, strike is another form of dispute that can take place within entity.

Sometimes, it is possible that British airways have to face condition like strike when company

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carry out any activity against its staff members. For instance if management has introduced the

rule of not adopting flexible working type of practice then the workers are influenced to work on

extra hours without providing any additional benefits (Samaras, 2012). So in this situation,

conflicts will surely arise within the workplace between staff members and management. In

order to resolve this issue like strike, British airways should adopt collective bargaining process.

The whole process starts with selection of appropriate union through secret ballot and after

selection, management will carry out bargaining with its staff members and both party reaches at

the appropriate conclusion.

2.2 Explaining the key features of employee relation in the selected conflicting situation

For the given task, conflicting situation is linked with collective disputes that have been

considered. In company like British airways, disputes between male and females are taking place

due to ineffective allocation of their work in organization. This type of condition develops

negative environment within the entity (Torrington, Taylor and Hall, 2006). As a result of it,

given condition may cause direct effect on the profitability and sales of organization. In

accordance with the selected conflicting situation, key analyzed characteristics of employees

relations are shown below:

Hindering the relationship between female and male staff members that are present in

British airways: The conflicting condition such as collective disputes may obstruct the

relationship between male and female staff members that are working in British airways.

This is because in the given scenario, male employees are raising their voice against

female one. Further, they are complaining continuously about the ineffective allocation of

activities (Bach and Bordogna, 2011). Such type of conditions may lead to development

of negative relationship between female and male staff members working in company.

Therefore, both the employees will not prefer to carry out their activities within given

period of time and overall productivity will be declined. Furthermore, it can have direct

impact on customers of company as they cannot be served in an efficient manner.

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Dissatisfied with the entity: It is another key characteristics of staff member relationship

in relation with the conflicting situation. Workers of British airways will show their

dissatisfaction against entity if management will not take appropriate steps in relation

with the analyzed conflicting condition like ineffective allocation of work. This situation

will have negative relationship between both employers and employees (Dizgah, Chegini

and Bisokhan, 2012). However, this relationship can be improved by British airways by

undertaking suitable actions with this regard. For solving the problem, arbitrator plays a

significant role and right solution can be found easily by keeping in view requirement of

both the parties.

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2.3 Evaluating the effectiveness of procedure that is used in the selected conflicting situation

The effectiveness of the procedure which is adopted by British airways is being measured

in collective disputes type of conflicting situation. For this issue, company has taken help from

dispute handling procedure. Basically in this process, discussion takes place between employees

and manager within the organization (Guest, 2011). This step is appropriate as through its

support, male employees of British airways can express their thoughts and opinions that are

linked with ineffective allocation of work in front of managers that are present in the workplace.

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At the time of discussion, staff members can ask managers about the reason behind given aspect.

The entire conflicting condition can be resolved if workers are satisfied with the reason provided

by managers of the company. Whereas if all the workers are not satisfied with the reason given

by them, then in such a case, they will present their issues in front of executive director or HR

manager.

This process is also appropriate as with the help of these steps, conflict that is taking

place can be resolved easily and in turn, it has positive impact on the entire firm (Hansen and

et.al., 2011). Furthermore, the 6 days time is being given to the executive director of HRM which

is being regarded as very less time with an objective to get an effective decision. In the given

scenario, ineffectiveness of the dispute handling procedure can take place. In the last stage,

collective disputes that can occur within organization will be presented by the staff members to

the dispute handling team. The entire committee is comprised of effective people who possess

capability to reach at an effective solution. So, on the basis of this, it can be said that procedures

adopted by British airways in the given conflict situation is proved to be effective.

TASK 3: UNDERSTANDING COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND

NEGOTIATION PROCESS

3.1Explaining the role of negotiation in a collective bargaining

Collective bargaining refers to the process where group of workers carries out activity of

negotiation with employers in relation with the terms of employment. Furthermore, it can be said

that collective bargaining provides way with the help of which healthy discussion can take place

between managers and staff members within business enterprise. In the process of collective

bargaining, workers that are working in British airways will choose stop steward which plays the

role of representative of staff members and it is important too (Jiang, Lepak, Hu and Baer, 2012).

Through this, workers present in the company can easily present their views in the front of top

management and in turn is considered to be one of the most effective processes. It directly

supports in resolving conflict and favourable environment that can be provided to the people

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working in British airways. So with this respect, different roles of negotiation are present in the

collective bargaining processes which are explained below:

Negotiation helps company in terms of reaching an effective conclusion: Here, in this

scenario, representative of workers negotiates with employers of the company with an

aim to get an effective solution with regard to the issues that are being faced by them

within workplace (Maurer and Chapman, 2013). Through the process of negotiation, only

that staff members can carry out healthy and formal discussion with top management of

British airways who are facing some issues in the workplace. So it is possible to find an

appropriate solution to the problem and it also helps in settlement of disputes that is being

faced by entity.

Negotiation helps in improving the effectiveness of the collective bargaining process:

Collective bargaining process has the main aim to resolve the disputes that takes place

between employees and employers of staff members such as British airways. With the

help of negotiation employers can easily explain their staff members about the main

reason behind adopting specific type of employment practices within the workplace

(Negotiation strategy, 2015). In this regard management of the company can carry out

discussion with its male employees in relation with the ineffective allocation of work.

Furthermore through this type of negotiation the specific issues prevailing in the

organization can be analyzed easily and in turn helps to improve overall performance

(McCauley, 2012). This will tend to enable employers in terms of maintaining continuity

in the services being rendered to target market. It is due to the reason that because of

presence of this aspect it can be said that method like negotiation plays important role in

terms of increasing the effectiveness of the collective bargaining process in an effective

manner.

3.2 Assessing the impact of negotiation strategy on the given situation

The overall impact of negotiation strategy on the collective disputes related condition of

British airways is being assessed. Basically negotiation is the way with the help of which

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conflicting situation can be managed easily by the firm such as British airways. In this respect

various negotiation strategies are analyzed that possess its significant influence on the selected

situation of the organization. It takes into consideration following activities such as forcing,

smoothing, compromising etc (Pandilwar and Sarkar, 2012). In the compromising strategy

managers does not take part in determining the middle ground with respect to specific issue

being faced by the employers present in the workplace. In this strategy one individual has to

compromise their goals and objectives. For instance if in the collective dispute type of condition

managers of the firm adopts collective bargaining type of strategy then in this condition it can be

seen that motivation level of staff members decreases and leads to decline in overall efficiency

level (McClean and Collins, 2011). If company like British airways complies with the given

situation then in such circumstances it becomes difficult for the entity to raise motivation level of

its male worker in an appropriate manner. On the other hand forcing is another negotiation

strategy which has the main objective to accomplish the personal goal at the expense of another.

In this type of strategy manager gives importance to personal goals rather than focusing on

organization one.

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In case if British airways uses this type of strategy in collective disputes type of condition

then in such situation negative environment can be build within the enterprise. It involves

negative feeling among the male staff members present in the company. So as a result of this it

becomes difficult for company to retain its valuable employees and they will not prefer to take

part in the major affairs of the firm. Furthermore by analyzing the entire situation presently faced

by the company the smoothing strategy is considered to be most appropriate. This is because by

adopting this strategy managers can give more importance to the opinion and views of the staff

members (Verreault and Hyland, 2002). So this can help in raising motivation level of the staff

members of British airways especially those who are male employee. It can also support in

reducing negative feeling among staff members which is generally high when mangers does not

focuses on the views and other opinions given by employees during the collective bargaining

process. Furthermore it can be said that firm like British airways can develop win – win situation

for both employers and employees if it carries out effective selection of specific negotiation

strategy in effective manner.

TASK 4 UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT OF EMPLOYEE

PARTICIPATION AND INVOLVEMENT

4.1 Assessing the influence of EU on industrial democracy in UK

Industrial democracy is the type of structure that is present within the business enterprise

where workers are given responsibility to take crucial decisions within the workplace. European

Union has direct impact on industrial democracy in UK and affects in every manner. Industrial

democracy within the country is being affected through the legislations as developed by the

European Union for instance if EU passes the act where it represents the more prominent role of

staff members in the decision making process of entity. So in this condition industrial democracy

present in the county has to comply with the guidelines issued. Further if company does not

follow it then firm has to go through conditions that have adverse impact such as strikes and

lockout by its staff members (Richard and Johnson, 2000).

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Furthermore cultural differences at national level in terms of democracy have direct

impact on the industrial democracy in the country. For example a multinational firm that belong

to the different nations does not focus on the aspect such as considering staff members in the

process of decision making of the enterprise. Business enterprise has to comply with the given

aspect if it is working in the European region. But in case if it is not being followed by the entity

then it becomes difficult for company to carry out its operations in European market in effective

and efficient manner. Furthermore due to the influence of EU only the concept related to partner

based relationship is being developed in the industrial democracy of UK. This type of

relationship takes place between both union work and management towards common or specified

goals. So by this it can be said that European Union has direct influence on the industrial

democracy of UK (Othman and Poon, 2001).

European Union has direct impact on industrial democracy as different laws are

introduced which company has to comply with. Further, in case if EU passes any act and firm

does not complies with it then it has adverse impact on the organization. In short, each and every

practice of business is highly regulated by European Union and it is ensured whether business is

working in favour of society or not (Cattell, 2005). Moreover, if company does not follows

proper guidelines then it leads to unfavourable situations such as strike and lockout. Union has

responsibility to set different standards as per the job and overall working environment in

company so that staff members can be protected from any type of harm and this in turn has

positive impact on the entire business.

4.2 Compare methods used to gain employee participation and involvement in the decision

making process in organization

Different methods are present that can be used by company with the objective to gain

employee involvement and participation in the process of decision making. It takes into

consideration techniques such as attitude survey, suggestion scheme and consultation etc.

Consultation is considered as one of the most common practice adopted by firm with an

objective to encourage its employees to take part in the decision making process. In this method

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managers provide opportunity to staff members in order to present their views and ideas in front

of the top management so that company can improve its overall performance (Hoobler and

Johnson, 2006). This directly supports in raising motivation level of employees and they take

initiative in favour of company. Whereas in comparison to this attitude survey is next method

which is also considered as effective through which British airways can encourage its employees

to take active participation in the affairs of company and present their views on specific matters

and views that are linked with them. It takes into consideration job evaluation and performance,

pay determination etc.

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After knowing the perception of workers company can carry out different changes in its

existing policies being developed. Furthermore suggestion scheme is another technique with the

help of which company can increase motivation level of its staff members. Employees are

encouraged to take part in the decision making process and through these workers who are

dissatisfied with the entity can present their views in front of top management. Further this

method provides opportunity to company to carry out all its operation in effective manner. In

short all these techniques provides platform to employers and employees so that they can interact

with each other (Kiessling and Harvey, 2004). For instance if British airways has developed any

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new policy which is linked with the working condition in company. So effectiveness of the new

policy can be known by company if valuable suggestions of staff members are taken. With the

help of this business enterprise can identify whether it is beneficial for them to continue its

operations by adopting such policy or not. Therefore by using different methods workers can be

involved in the process of decision making.

4.3 Assessing the impact that human resource management has on the employee relation

Human resource management has direct impact on employees retention and through this

staff members who are working in welfare of enterprise can be retained easily. Furthermore in

this regard it can be said that policies and rules developed by human resource department of

British airways has direct impact on the relationship prevailing between employers and

employees. The relationship between staff members and employers can be strengthened easily if

human resource management of the entity provides favourable working environment to the

people present in the workplace (Cattell, 2005). This directly supports in retaining employees

and helps in enhancing level of motivation. Such type of surroundings can be developed by

adopting person culture within the workplace. In this type of culture opinion and views of are

given major importance and directly supports in increasing motivation level of staff members

present in the company. As a result of this relationship between managers and workers of British

airways will be improved in effective manner.

Furthermore the employee relationship perspective adopted by the HR department of firm

has direct impact on the relationship that is present within the organization. For better

development of relationship between employer and employee company can follow pluralist

perspective of employee relation and through this it is possible to improve overall organizational

performance. This is due to the reason that this approach focuses on need and significance of

considering union within the organization. However, if company depends on different

perspectives likewise unitarist then in such situation appropriate and suitable relationship can

developed and maintained by the enterprise (Torrington, Taylor and Hall, 2006). On the other

hand, if human resource manager can potential measures in order to motivate and encourage

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Sample on employee relations

employees than in such environment better relationship between functional managers and

subordinates can be developed. Furthermore, by the means this firm can operate in more

effective and efficient manner so that desired corporate goals and objectives can be achieved as

well as brand image of the firm can be improved.

CONCLUSION

From the above report it has become easy to understand the importance of managing

employee relation within the workplace. It has become necessary for every firm to develop an

effective relationship between employer and employees so that operations can be carried out

efficiently. Furthermore through such type of relations strategic aims and objectives of company

can be accomplished easily and in turn acts as development tool. British airways can easily

render effective services to its customers by retaining its staff members and helps in increasing

profitability level. Moreover by identifying the unitary and pluralistic frames of references

effectiveness of the labour union can be determined by the entity.

Sample On Employee Relations

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Sample on employee relations

REFERENCES

Books

Analoui, F., 2000. The Changing Patterns of Human Resource Management. Ashgate,

Hampshire.

Armstrong, M., 2005. Strategic Human Resource Management: A Guide to Action. Kogan Page

Publishers.

Burnes, B., 2003. Managing Change. London, Prentice-Hall.

Fombrun, C., Tichy, N.M. and Devanna, M.A., 2005. Strategic Human Resource Management.

John Wiley and Sons.

Holbeche, L., 2013. Aligning human resources and business strategy. Routledge.

Jackson, S., Schuler, R. and Werner, S., 2011. Managing human resources. Cengage Learning.

Marchington, M. and Wilkinson, A. J., 2012. Human resource management at work.

Marsden, P., Caffrey, M. and McCaffery, J., 2013. Human Resources Management Assessment

Approach. Capacity Plus.

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