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ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS. Dr. M.B.Mule Professor & Head Department of Environmental Science, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad. Terms and Terminology. Environment Economics Economic system Market Money Economic planning Programmes Policies Priorities.

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Environmental economics

ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS

Dr. M.B.Mule

Professor & Head

Department of Environmental Science,

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University,

Aurangabad.


Terms and terminology
Terms and Terminology

  • Environment

  • Economics

  • Economic system

  • Market

  • Money

  • Economic planning

  • Programmes

  • Policies

  • Priorities


  • Importance of economics

  • Environment

  • Definition

  • Types – Micro & Macro

    Ex. Hall, campus, city, country , world, globe

  • Components

  • Non living

  • Living

  • Physical and chemical phenomenon's and properties

  • Interaction among

  • Interdependence

  • Balance in biotic and biotic components

  • Complex network - invisibles


Man environment
Man & Environment

  • Man a part of environment

  • Environment developed by the process of metamorphic change

  • Every component have importance

  • Importance of environment - for man

  • From living

  • Important animals (domesticated)

  • Important plants (cultivated)

  • Weeds

  • Predators / parasites

  • Harmful – tried to remove from environment

  • Beneficiary organism

  • Harmful organism

  • Competitors



  • Man – as dominating organism

  • Man developed systems

  • Economic, Social, Political, Educational systems

  • Economic system

  • Economics – skeletal system : backbone in human society

  • History : from prehistoric period

  • Kautilya’s – ‘Aarthshatra’- every dimension of human society.

  • Political system

  • Kingdoms- rules, regulations and responsibilities

  • Peoples responsibilities

  • Policy components

  • Strategies

  • Economic policies – various sections of human society

  • Concept of ‘Abhayarnaya’

  • Rules for hunting

  • Human is at the centre


Present economic strategies and polices
Present economic strategies and polices

  • Common citizen – at the centre

  • Development of human society

  • Assessment of human development

    - Per capita income

    - Per capita availability and utility of natural resource

  • Development depends on natural resource


Natural resource
Natural resource

  • What is natural resource

  • Definition : any material when obtained from surrounding environment and used for betterment of human society or which assess to man or which enhances the living standard of human life , then that material is categorized as natural resources.

  • Basic needs – i) air, ii) water iii) food iv) shelter v) cloths vi) social security (recently added).

  • Activities for basic needs – eg. Agriculture for food

  • Agriculture production – fetch in market – money used for assistance – agriculture become a natural resource.

  • Involved in development


Man s development
Man’s Development

  • Depends on availability and utility

  • Unavailability – made available from market

  • Money - as a force

  • High convertibility

  • Importance of market in economy for human development

  • Human development policies – key role

  • Availability, exploitation , purification and utilization

  • Rate of human development - directly proportional

  • exploitation , purification and utilization results degradation of environment

  • Ex. Fossil fuels – various environmental problems


Natural resources
Natural resources

  • Air

  • Water

  • Soil (top soil)

  • Rocks (stones)

  • Minerals

  • Metals

  • Fossil fuels (coal, shell oil, petrol, diesel, kerosene, LPG, gasoline etc)

  • Flora (forest, crop plants, grasslands, orchards)

  • Fauna (domestic and wild animals, fisheries)


Resource value of components
Resource value of components

  • Forest

  • Fuel wood

  • Timber

  • Materials for house construction

  • Agricultural equipments

  • Railway sleepers

  • Raw materials to industry

  • Forest products

  • Paper

  • Fiber

  • Medicines


b) Grassland

  • Grazing

  • Agricultural land

  • Raw material for industries

  • Food and fodder

    c) Aquaculture

  • Fishes (fishery)

  • Prawns (prawn culture)

  • Mollusc (pearl culture)

  • Aquatic plants

  • Duck farming

  • Whale dairy


d) Wild life

  • Food

  • Medicine

  • Fancy articles

  • Fragrance (cents)

  • Cosmetics

  • Skin (leather)

  • Fur

  • Other valuable products


e) Minerals

  • Chemicals

  • Useful compounds

    f) Metals

  • Fe, Cu, Au, Zn, Hg, La, Ge, Ag, Pb etc.

    g) Fossil fuels (coal, shell oil, petrol, diesel, kerosene, LPG, gasoline etc)

    h) Top soil

  • Agricultural

  • Grassland

  • Forest

  • Cover

  • Environment provides resources and plays key role in human development.


Degradation of environment
Degradation of Environment

  • Environmental problems

  • Air pollution

  • Water pollution

  • Soil pollution

  • Thermal pollution

  • Noise pollution

  • Radiation pollution

  • Marine pollution

  • Pesticide pollution

  • Vehicular pollution

  • Agricultural pollution

  • Eutrophication


  • Pollution due to sewage

  • Oil pollution

  • Deforestation

  • Desertification

  • Decreasing soil quality – fertility

  • Soil salination

  • Underground water pollution

  • Decreasing biodiversity

  • Decreasing genetic diversity

  • Decreasing ecosystem diversity

  • Decreasing oceanic diversity

  • Problem of acid rain

  • Photochemical smog


  • Ozone layer depletion

  • Hazardous waste and their problems

  • human health problems

  • Problems to aquaculture

  • New disease in cultivated plants

  • Emerging new kinds of disease in human society

  • Green house effect

  • Global warming

  • Climate change

  • Decreasing wild life

  • Extinction of wild life

  • Habitat loss of wild life

  • Decreasing crop plants diversity


  • Increasing disease susceptibility

  • Resistance development to germ and pathogens

  • Genetic abnormalities in plants, animals/ man

  • Problems of arctic and Antarctic regions

  • Depletory resource material

  • Decreasing fossil fuels

  • Degrading quality of resources

  • Pesticide residue and health problems

  • Flooding

  • Draught conditions

  • Increasing rate of extinction

  • Bioaccumulation of toxicants

  • Change in monsoon

  • Change in hydrological cycle

  • Cloud busting

  • Every problem – have adverse and beneficiary impacts

  • Adverse impact are dominated eg. Climate change


Economic causes for degradation
Economic causes for degradation

  • Loss assessment in terms of currency

  • eg. Flooding

  • to crop plants

  • due to soil erosion

  • Due to damage to road, railroad

  • Blocking transport

  • Loss of working days

  • Loss of production in industries

  • Due to health problems

  • Money required to treat disease

  • Loss to house and artifacts

  • Loss to national monuments

  • Loss to public property

  • Benefits – deposition of silt improves soil quality at certain places

  • Need to consider the economic aspects of environment


Benefits of environmental economics
Benefits of environmental economics

  • For protection of environment

  • Ex. Water loss during flooding

  • Thrown stored water

  • For identifying potential rate of development

  • For the sustainable use of resource


  • Economist give least value to environment- probable reason for rapid degradation

  • Fear of market failure

  • Pricing of goods

  • Less weightage the environmental services and maximum to man made activity

  • eg. Pricing of fish

  • Pricing of water

  • Not given cost to the environment

  • For conservation envirnmetnaleconimics can be used,

  • Eg. Plant Oxygen production


Concept of conservation
Concept of conservation for rapid degradation

  • Guarding – not good conservation

  • Partial use with protection – good conservation

    Ex. Fish from pond

  • Conservation of environment means conservation of natural resources

  • Concept of sustenance

  • Properties of sustain ace


  • Economics of natural environmental components for rapid degradation

  • Plants

  • Top soil and its value - for food grain production

  • No export

  • Values of gene

  • Value of wild life

  • Economics of non-renewable resource

  • Eg. Iron – ore – product cost


  • Concept of sustenance and for rapid degradation3 R

  • Reduce use

  • Reuse

  • Recycle

  • Conservation of nature means conservation of natural resources through economic policies


Thanks for your kind attention for rapid degradation….


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