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Aim: What events/occurrences led to the Bolshevik Revolution? (Continuing from yesterday’s). Title: The Russian (Bolshevik) Revolution Do Now: Please complete the handout (located at the front of the room). . What is this cartoon saying about Russian Society, economy, and political

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Aim: What events/occurrences led to the Bolshevik Revolution? (Continuing from yesterday’s)

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Aim what events occurrences led to the bolshevik revolution continuing from yesterday s

Aim: What events/occurrences led to the Bolshevik Revolution? (Continuing from yesterday’s)

Title: The Russian (Bolshevik) Revolution

Do Now:

  • Please complete the handout (located at the front of the room).


Aim what events occurrences led to the bolshevik revolution continuing from yesterday s

What is this cartoon saying about Russian Society, economy, and political

system?

2. Might this political cartoon help us comprehend the MOTIVES/reasons for

revolution? Why, or why not? EXPLAIN!!


Aim what events occurrences led to the bolshevik revolution continuing from yesterday s

Cause and Effect

What were some causes of the Russian(Bolshevik) Revolution (Oct./Nov. 1917)?

Answer(s): growing unrest, major distinctions between the “HAVES” vs. “HAVE NOTS,” lack of food/resources throughout. Entered WWI (which cost countless $$), over 2 million troops died, outdated infrastructure, including industries, inspired rebellions against a weak & corrupt czar.


Aim what events occurrences led to the bolshevik revolution continuing from yesterday s

Peace, Land, Bread

AllPowertotheSoviets


World war i the final blow

World War I: The Final Blow

  • Heavy losses in World War I reveal government’s weakness

  • Nicholas goes to war front; Czarina Alexandra runs government in his absence


The impact of wwi

The impact of WWI

  • Military Defeats

    • Russian army was big but poorly equipped

    • Lost two major battles in 1914

    • Caused loss of civilian and military morale

    • Tsar now held responsible for the defeats as he had taken charge of the army


Aim what events occurrences led to the bolshevik revolution continuing from yesterday s

Criticism of the Tsar

Poor military commander

Poor political leader

Left the Tsarina in charge of the government

Refused to accept advice from the Duma

Criticism if the Tsarina

Inexperienced and incompetent ruler

Under the influence of Rasputin

Unpopular because she was German

Impact of WWI

Role of Rasputin

Claimed to be a healer. Disliked by many yet held influence over both the Tsar and Tsarina


Economic problems

Economic problems

Impact WWI

Impact WWI

  • Over 15 million men joined the army

  • not enough workers in factories and farms

  • caused shortages of food and materials

  • Railway system very poor

    • could not supply the troops

    • could not supply the towns

    • food prices rose


Social discontent

Social discontent

Impact WWI

Impact WWI

  • Food shortages and price rises caused widespread discontent

  • The war had seen the population move from the countryside to the cities

  • The cities soon became overcrowded and people lived in terrible conditions


First steps

First Steps

  • In March 1917, strikes expand; soldiers refuse to fire on workers.

  • Most of the tension is caused by Nicholas II personally taking command of the military in World War I, and the war going so badly.


The czar steps down

The Czar Steps Down

  • March Revolution—protests become uprising; Nicholas abdicates throne

  • Duma establishes provisional, or temporary government

  • Soviets—committees of Socialist revolutionaries—control many cities


Lenin returns to russia

Lenin Returns to Russia

  • In April 1917, Germans aid Lenin in returning from exile to Russia (pictured in disguise with his goatee shaved and wearing a wig).


The provisional government topples

The Provisional Government Topples

  • In November 1917, workers take control of the government


Bolsheviks in power

Bolsheviks in Power

  • Lenin gives land to peasants, puts workers in control of factories

  • Bolsheviks sign treaty with Germany (Treaty of Brest-Litvosk); Russia pulls out of World War I

    • What did that mean?


Civil war rages in russia

Civil War Rages in Russia

  • Civil War between Bolsheviks’ Red Army and loosely allied White Army

  • Red Army wins three-year war that leaves 14 million dead


New economic policy

New Economic Policy

  • In March 1921, Lenin launches New Economic Policy; has some capitalism

  • NEP and peace restore economy shattered by war and revolution

  • By 1928, Russia’s farms and factories are producing again


Political reforms

Political Reforms

  • Lenin creates self-governing republics under national government

  • In 1922, country renamed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)

  • Communist Party—new name taken by Bolsheviks from the writings of Marx


Long term causes

Long term causes

GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATION

  • The great size of Russia led to geographical and cultural isolation from the West.

  • The empire stretched from the Baltic to the Black Sea and from Poland to the Pacific

  • Russia was therefore shielded from the liberalizing influences of the French Revolution and the Enlightenment.

  • The Empire also lagged behind in terms of industrialization

  • The expanse of the empire is reflected in the large population [150 - 160 million]


Long term causes1

Long term causes

AUTOCRACY & ABSOLUTISM OF CZARS

  • Political parties were banned

  • Radicals were imprisoned or sent to Siberia as exiles

  • Censorship of the press

  • Control of public meetings

  • Tsar’s word was law

  • Weak and limited political institutions


Long term causes2

Long term causes

CLASS INEQUALITIES

  • Peasants comprised 80% of the total population

  • Less than a third of peasants were literate

  • Life expectancy in the countryside was under 40 years

  • Peasants did not own land and all farming was done on communal land

  • Peasants were heavily taxed by the commune & corporal punishment was administered by a Land Captain


Long term causes3

Long term causes

RISE IN MARXISM

  • The development of the Russian Democratic Labor Movement/Party.

  • Eventually split into the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks

  • They felt that the industrialization of Russia would lead to destruction of the landowning classes

  • One great Marxist/Bolshevik leader was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov


Long term causes4

Long term causes

OPPRESSION OF THE SERFS

  • A serf is an unfree peasant who is bound to the land & is obligated to pay duties to the lord. If the land is sold, the serf is sold with the land.


Long term causes5

Long term causes

OPPRESSION OF THE SERFS

  • A serf is an unfree peasant who is bound to the land & is obligated to pay duties to the lord. If the land is sold, the serf is sold with the land.


Immediate causes

Immediate causes

DEFEAT IN RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR (1904-05)

  • War over control of Manchuria and Korea

  • Resulted in the annihilation of the Russian Baltic fleet by the Japanese in Tshusima

  • Russia sign a peace treaty in August 1905 giving Japan control over Korea and North Manchuria


Immediate causes1

Immediate causes

1905 REVOLUTION

  • Outcome?

    • Unrestrained massacre leaving hundreds dead and others wounded [BLOODY SUNDAY]

    • Assassination of the Tsar’s uncle Grand Duke Sergei who was governor-general in Moscow

    • Constitutional Reform leading to the DUMA PERIOD characterized by limited democracy


Immediate causes2

Immediate causes

WORLD WAR I

  • Russian troops experienced acute demoralization

  • Gov’t mismanagement of the war effort

  • Russia did not possess the industrial capacity to sustain a war in terms of:

    • Equipment

    • Supplies

    • Internal transport


Russian revolution

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

  • The course of the revolution may be split into two distinctive phases

  • PHASE 1: February/ March

  • PHASE 2: October/ November


October november revolution

October / November revolution

  • Also called the Bolshevik Revolution because the main personalities involved were members of the Bolshevik party

  • The Bolsheviks were against the Provisional government

  • Each proposal made by the Provisional gov’t was contested by the Bolsheviks


Aim what events occurrences led to the bolshevik revolution continuing from yesterday s

Serfdom

Agricultural Society

  • Russian society under czars mostly agricultural

  • Unlike other European countries, Russia had not industrialized

  • Much of population, serfs—workers considered part of land they worked

Serfs

  • Controlled by lords, wealthy nobles whoowned land

  • Technically not slaves; livingconditions, lack of freedom, resembledslavery

  • Not allowedtoleavepropertywhereborn; did not own land they worked

Societal Problem

  • Serfs had to make regularpayments of goods, laborto lords

  • Some in governmentwantedtoimproveconditions, unableto make reforms

  • Russian serfdomway of life, a major problem in Russian society


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