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7 th Grade Semester One English Exam Review. To be used in conjunction with review handout and your textbook. Nouns. Nominative & Objective Case Nouns. The best source to study for this is your packet. Page one covers your Nominative Case Nouns (S, SC, DA, Appos).

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7 th grade semester one english exam review

7th Grade Semester One English Exam Review

To be used in conjunction with review handout and your textbook.



Nominative objective case nouns
Nominative & Objective Case Nouns

  • The best source to study for this is your packet.

  • Page one covers your Nominative Case Nouns (S, SC, DA, Appos).

  • Page two covers your Objective Case Nouns (DO, IO, OP, Appos).



Nominative Case Nouns

Subject:

Where: They are usually at the front of the sentence in front of the verb.

What: They are the noun or nouns that do the verb.

Clue: Find the verb and ask “who” or “what” is doing it.

Example: Susan walked three miles to her home.

Subject Compliment:

Where: They are always behind the linking verb toward the back of the sentence.

What: They are nouns that restate the subjects in front of them.

Clue: Find the subject and verb and ask the question “who” or “what”, look behind the l

linking verb for the answer. (Remember, these can not be in prepositional phrases.)

Example: My sister is the girl in the third row.

Direct Address:

Where: They can be in the front, middle, or end of the sentence.

What: They are the nouns (usually people) that are being spoken to in the sentence.

Clue: Most direct addresses are people, and commas always set them off.

Example: Go to the store, Sarah, and buy some bread.

Appositives:

Where: They are always directly behind the noun they replace. (No verb is between

them).

What: They are nouns that repeat or restate a noun in front of them.

Clue: They are similar to subject compliments without the linking verb between

them, and commas sometimes set them off.

Appositives in the Nominative case can restate subjects and subject compliments

Example: Joseph, my neighbor, gave me a ride to school.


Objective case nouns these can be found on pages 242 245 in your textbook
Objective Case Nouns - These can be found on pages 242-245 in your textbook.


Nouns in the Objective Case

Direct Object:

Where: They are behind the action verb.

What: They are nouns that receive action from the verb.

Clue: Find the subject and verb and ask “who” or “what”, look behind the verb for the answer.

(Remember DO’s can not be in prepositional phrases).

Example: Tony received the award for his speech.

Object of Preposition:

Where: They are the noun or nouns located behind the prepositions in the prepositional phrases.

What: They are nouns that complete the prepositional phrases.

Clue: You must know your prepositions!! Ask who or what after your preposition.

Example: Jenny went {to the store} yesterday.

Indirect Object:

Where: They are behind the action verb and in front of the direct object.

What: They are nouns that receive the direct object from the subject.

Clue: Find the verb and direct object and ask “to whom” or “for whom”,

Look behind the verb and in front of the direct object for the answer. You will NOT have an

indirect object without a direct object, and they can never be in prepositional phrases.

Example: The teacher gave the class a test.

Appositives:

Where: They are directly behind the noun they replace. (There is no verb between them.

What: They are nouns that repeat or restate a noun in front of them.

Clue: They are similar to subject compliments without the linking verb between

them, and commas sometimes set them off.

Appositives in the Objective case restate direct objects, objects of the prepositions, and indirect

objects.

Example: I gave the bone to Spike, my friend’s dog.


Possessive nouns
Possessive Nouns

  • You add ‘s to all singular nouns to make them possessive. Ex: glass’s

  • You add ‘s to all plural nouns that don’t end in “s” to make them possessive. Ex: children’s

  • You add just an ‘ to plural nouns that already end in “s” to make them possessive. Ex: boxes’


Possessive rules can be found on the third page of your packet on page 239 of your textbook
Possessive rules can be found on the third page of your packet & on page 239 of your textbook.


Plural rules for nouns
Plural Rules for Nouns

  • The many different rules for making nouns plural can be found on pages 228-232in your textbook.


Proper common nouns these rules can be found on page 221 of your textbook
Proper & Common Nouns –These rules can be found on page 221 of your textbook.

Proper nouns are words that name a specific person, place, thing or idea. Proper nouns are capitalized so the reader can tell them apart from common nouns.

Common nouns do not name a specific person, place, thing or idea. Common nouns are not capitalized unless they are at the beginning of a sentence or part of a title.

Proper - George Washington Common – man

Proper - White HouseCommon - building

Proper - United States Constitution Common - document


Concrete abstract nouns these rules can be found on pages 224 225 of your textbook
Concrete & Abstract Nouns – These rules can be found on pages 224 & 225 of your textbook.

Concrete nouns are words that represent objects one can see, hear, touch, smell, taste with the senses.

Abstract nouns are anything one cannot literally see, hear, touch, smell or taste.

Examples:

Concrete Noun – Heart, Flag

Abstract Noun – Love, Patriotism


Collective nouns these can be found on page 223 of your textbook
Collective Nouns – These can be found on page 223 of your textbook.

Collective nouns, a special class, name groups [things] composed of many members.

Ex:

armyaudienceboardcabinetclasscommitteecompanycorporation

Each noun from the list above is a single thing.



Person of pronouns this can be found in your packet or on page 255 in the text book
Person of Pronouns – This can be found in your packet or on page 255 in the text book


Number of pronouns this can be found in your packet or on page 256 in the text book
Number of Pronouns – This can be found in your packet or on page 256 in the text book


Case of pronouns this can be found in your packet or on page 257 263 in the text book
Case of Pronouns – This can be found in your packet or on page 257 - 263 in the text book


Personal Pronouns

Nominative Case: ( ____ baked a cake)

SingularPlural

I We (1st person)

You You (2nd person)

He, She, It They (3rd person)

Objective Case: (Mary baked a cake for ______)

SingularPlural

Me Us (1st person)

You You (2nd person)

Him, Her, It Them (3rd person)

Possessive Case: (That was ___ cake. The cake was ____)

SingularPlural

My, Mine Our, Ours (1st person)

Your, Yours Your, Yours (2nd person)

His, Her, Hers, Its Their, Theirs (3rd person)

Remember:

First person = person speaking

Second person = person spoken to

Third person = person spoken about

Nominative parts of speech = Subject, Subject Compliment, Direct Address, Appositive

Objective parts of speech = Direct Object, Indirect Object, Object of Preposition, Appositive

Possessive part of speech = Adjective


Compound pronouns these can be found on page 268 of your textbook
Compound Pronouns – Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 268 of your textbook.

  • Compound Pronouns are also called reflexive and intensive pronouns.

  • They are the words myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

  • EX:

  • I gave myself plenty of time to get to work.

  • You should let yourself into the house.


Interrogative pronouns these can be found on page 271 of your textbook
Interrogative Pronouns Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 271 of your textbook.

Interrogative pronouns take the place of nouns in questions.

Interrogative pronouns include the words:

who, whom, which and what

Who = Subject

Whom = Object

Ex:

Who is at home?

Whom did you ask over?

(you is the subject)


Relative pronouns these can be found on page 274 of your textbook
Relative Pronouns Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 274 of your textbook.

Relative pronouns are used to link adjective clauses to other phrases or clauses. The relative pronouns are:

who, whom, that, which

Who = Subject

Whom = Object

Ex: The girl who sits behind me is talkative.

The boy whom we invited is arriving. (weis the subject)


Demonstrative pronouns these can be found on page 283 of your textbook
Demonstrative Pronouns Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 283 of your textbook.

The four demonstrative pronouns are:

this, that = singular

these, those. = plural

A demonstrative pronoun identifies and specifies a noun or pronoun. They point to something “Vanna White” pronouns.


Indefinite pronouns these can be found on page 284 of your textbook
Indefinite Pronouns Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 284 of your textbook.

An indefinite pronoun refers to something that is not definite or specific or exact.

Some plural indefinite pronouns are all, another, any, few, many, some, several. You can replace these with “THEY” to get the right verb.

The singular indefinite pronouns are:

anybody, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, none, nothing, somebody, someone, something

You can replace them with “HE” and get the right verb.


Distributive pronouns these can be found on page 285 of your textbook
Distributive Pronouns Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 285 of your textbook.

Distributive Pronouns are used distributively.

They are: each, either, neither.

These are always singular and can be replaces by “HE” to get the correct verb.


Pronoun subject verb agreement rules
Pronoun Subject Verb Agreement Rules Personal Pronouns

  • Page 264: Pronouns after “than” or “as”(The pronoun behind must take the same case as the word it is being compared to.)

    Ex: The girl is as tall as (he, him). = subject form

  • Page 270: Agreement of Compound Pronouns(They must agree in number with the antecedent.)

    Ex: Susan asked (herself, themselves) a question.

  • Page 273: Who or Whom as Interrogative Pronouns(who = subj., whom = obj.)

    Ex: Who do you like? Whom did you ask that question?

    who = subject you = subject, so whom = object


Pronoun subject verb agreement rules cont
Pronoun Subject Verb Agreement Rules Cont.. Personal Pronouns

  • Page 276: Who or Whom as Relative Pronouns(who = subject, whom = object)

    Ex: The girl who is tall is nice. (Who = subject)

    Ex: The boy whom we like is nice. (We = subject)

  • Page 286: Distributive & Indefinite Pronouns(all distributives = singular, each, either, neither; can replace with “he”.)

    (Indefinites that end with “one,” “thing,” or “body” are singular; can replace with “he”.)

  • Page 288: Avoiding Double Negatives

    Ex: I didn’t do (anything, nothing).


Adjectives
Adjectives Personal Pronouns


Position of adjectives this is found on page 297 in your text book
Position of Adjectives Personal PronounsThis is found on page 297 in your text book.

Adjectives can be:

In front of the word they modify: That is a tall tree.

A subject compliment behind a linking verb: That tree is tall.

Directly behind the word it modifies: The tree, tall and green, is an Elm.


Descriptive adjectives these can be found on page 295 of your textbook
Descriptive Adjectives Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 295 of your textbook.

These are words that describe a noun.

They could be said to answer the question “what kind of.”

Ex: That is my favorite book.

My new car is blue.

The loud music isn’t to my taste.


Articles these can be found on page 299 of your textbook
Articles Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 299 of your textbook.

  • The three article are: a an the

  • Definite article is: THE

  • Indefinite articles are: AAN


Demonstrative adjectives these can be found on page 302 of your textbook
Demonstrative Adjectives Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 302 of your textbook.

This That These Those

  • Singular: This, That

  • Plural: These, Those

  • Close: This, These

  • Distant: That, Those


Possessive adjectives these can be found on page 302 of your textbook
Possessive Adjectives Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 302 of your textbook.

  • These are formed from possessive pronouns.

    My, mine,

    our, ours,

    your, yours,

    his, her, hers, its,

    their, theirs


Distributive adjectives these can be found on page 302 of your textbook
Distributive Adjectives Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 302of your textbook.

Each, Either, Neither, & Every


Indefinite adjectives these can be found on page 302 of your textbook
Indefinite Adjectives Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 302 of your textbook.

  • These represent an indefinite number.

  • Examples: some, few, many, several, all etc.


Interrogative adjectives these can be found on page 302 of your textbook
Interrogative Adjectives Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 302 of your textbook.

  • These ask a question.

    which, what, whose


Positive comparative superlative adjectives these can be found on page 305 307 of your textbook
Positive/Comparative/Superlative Adjectives Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 305-307 of your textbook.

Positive is describing one thing. Ex: strong, interesting

Comparative is describing two things: Ex: stronger, more/less interesting

Superlative is describing more than two things. Ex: strongest, most/least interesting


Verbs
Verbs Personal Pronouns


Simple tenses these can be found on pages 342 343 of your textbook
Simple Tenses Personal PronounsThese can be found on pages 342-343 of your textbook.

Present: (today I…)

jump sing

Past: (yesterday I…)

jumped sang

Future: (Tomorrow I…)

will jump will sing

Passive Voice: (Tense is determined by helping verbs)

Present: is, am, are, jumped is, am, are, sung

Past: was, were, jumped was, were sung

Future: will be jumped will be sung


Perfect tenses compound these can be found on page 344 of your textbook
Perfect Tenses (Compound) Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 344 of your textbook.

Present Perfect: have, has jumped

have, has sung

Past Perfect: had jumped

had sung

Future Perfect: will have jumped

will have sung

Passive Voice: Add a form of “be”

Present Perfect: have, hasbeen jumped

have, hasbeen sung

Past Perfect: hadbeen jumped

hadbeen sung

Future Perfect: will havebeen jumped

will havebeen sung


Progressive tenses these always have a verb ending in ing
Progressive Tenses Personal PronounsThese always have a verb ending in “ing”

Present Progressive: is, am, are, jumping

is, am, are, singing

Past Progressive: was, were jumping

was, were singing

Future Progressive: will be jumping

will be singing

Notice the tense is determined by the helping verbs

Passive Voice: Move the “ing” to the additional form of “be.”

Present Progressive: is, am, are, being jumped

is, am, are, being sung

Past Progressive: was, were being jumped

was, were being sung

Future Progressive: There is no form of this


Regular irregular verbs these can be found on page 323 of your textbook
Regular/Irregular Verbs Personal PronounsThese can be found on page 323 of your textbook.

Regular verbs are verbs that you add “d” or “ed” to from the present to the past tense.

Ex: jump = jumped

carry = carried

waste = wasted

Irregular verbs are verbs that you do anything else to from the present to the past tense.

Ex: sing = sang

take = took

choose = chose


Active passive voice these can be found on pages 337 339 of your textbook
Active/Passive Voice Personal PronounsThese can be found on pages 337-339 of your textbook.

  • In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object.

    Ex: Susanbaked a cake.

  • In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence.

    Ex: The cake was baked by Susan.

    Passive voice will always have a form

    of “be” as a helping verb.


Troublesome verbs these can be found on pages 327 328 of your textbook
Troublesome Verbs Personal PronounsThese can be found on pages327 & 328 of your textbook.

SIT – To sit means to take a resting position. There is no object of this verb.

sit sat have sat

SET - Set must have a direct object. It means to place something in a position.

set set have set

• Lie means that the (subject) is doing something to himself or herself.

lie lay have lain

Lay means that the subject is acting on something else; therefore, it requires an object.

lay laid have laid

Raise is transitive, it needs a direct object. You do it to something else.

raise raised have raised

Rise is intransitive, it doesn’t have a direct object. You do it to yourself.

rise rose have risen


Troublesome verbs cont these can be found on pages 327 328 of your textbook
Troublesome Verbs Cont. Personal PronounsThese can be found on pages327 & 328 of your textbook

  • Bring vs. Take

  • He brings his lunch to work every day.

  • • emphasizes movement in the direction of the destination.

  • bring brought have brought

  • She takes her lunch to work every day.

    • • emphasizes movement away from the starting point

    • take took have taken

Leave as a verb means to depart or to go away.

leave left have left

Letas a verb means to allow or to permit.

let let have let

BORROW needs an object, you get something from someone else.

LEND needs an indirect object + a direct object, you give something to someone else.


Transitive intransitive verbs these can be found on pages 331 333 of your textbook
Transitive/Intransitive Verbs Personal PronounsThese can be found on pages 331-333 of your textbook.

The meaning of a transitive verb is incomplete without a direct object as in the following examples:

The shelf holds three books.

The committee named a new chairperson.

An intransitive verb, on the other hand, cannot take a direct object.

The shelf holds.

The committee named.


Action linking verbs these can be found on page 335 of your textbook

Linking Verbs Personal Pronouns

Action/Linking VerbsThese can be found on page 335 of your textbook.

Common Linking Verbs

Action Verbs do an action:

Ex: jump, run, ask

Linking verbs have a subject compliment:

She is tired.

It smell beautiful.


Subject verb agreement rules these can be found on pages 353 365 of your textbook
Subject/Verb Agreement Rules Personal PronounsThese can be found on pages 353-365 of your textbook.

There is a pod cast of all the subject/verb agreement rules on the classroom Wiki page in the “audio/video” page link.

https://mjanes8.wikispaces.com/


Subjects joined by and
Subjects Joined by “and”… Personal Pronouns

  • When the subject of a sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns connected by and, You almost always should use a plural verb. You can replace the subjects with the pronoun they, and you will always get the right answer.

  • Ex: Sheand herfriends (is, are) at the fair.

  • Answer: They (are) at the fair.


Exceptions to that rule
Exceptions to That Rule… Personal Pronouns

  • Rarely, but sometimes, two subjects joined by and represent one object. If that is the case, you should use a singular verb. You can replace the subjects with he, she, or it, and the sentence will work.

  • Ex: Ice cream and cake (is, are) my favorite dessert.

  • Answer: It (is) my favorite dessert.

  • since the SC = one dessert, then the subject must be singular.


Compound subjects preceded by each every many a or no
Compound Subjects Preceded by Each, Every, Many a, or No… Personal Pronouns

  • When you have two subjects joined by “and” but preceded by “each” or “every”, “many a”, or “no”, you should use a singular verb. You can replace the subject with “he”, “she”, or “it” and it will work.

  • Ex: Every aunt and uncle (was, were) at the reunion.

  • He (was) at the reunion.

  • Ex: Each lion and tiger (is, are) dangerous.

  • It (is) dangerous.


Subjects joined by or or nor
Subjects Joined by “or” or “nor”, Personal Pronouns

  • When a compound subject is joined by “or” or “nor”, the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is nearer the verb.

  • If it is singular, replace with “he”, “she”, or “it.”

  • If it is plural replace with “they.”

  • Ex: The boy or his friends (runs, run) every day.

  • They (run) every day.

  • Ex: His friends or the boy (runs, run) every day.

  • He (runs) every day.


Sentences beginning with there
Sentences Beginning with “There” Personal Pronouns

  • In sentences beginning with “there is” or “there are”, the verb agrees with the word/words that follows the verb.

  • Ex: There are many questions.

  • Ex: There is a question.


Collective nouns
Collective Nouns Personal Pronouns

  • Collective nouns are words that imply more than one person but that are considered singular and usually take a singular verb, such as: group, team, committee, class, and family. You can replace the subject with “he”, “she”, or “it.”

  • Ex: The class (want, wants) a recess.

    He (wants) a recess.


Singular indefinite pronouns
Singular Indefinite Pronouns Personal Pronouns

  • The indefinite pronouns that end in “one”, “body”, or “thing” are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs. You can replace them with “he”, “she” or “it” and it will always work.

  • Ex: Everyone (has, have) done homework.

    He (has) done homework.


Plural indefinite pronouns
Plural Indefinite Pronouns Personal Pronouns

  • Plural indefinite pronouns such as: some, many, few, several, are plural and can be replaced with “they” to use with the plural verb.

  • Ex: Several of the girls (swim, swims) on the team.

    They (swim) on the team.


Distributive pronouns
Distributive Pronouns Personal Pronouns

  • The pronouns each,neither and either are singular and require singular verbs even though they seem to be referring, in a sense, to two things. You can replace it with “he”, “she”, or “it” and it will work.

  • Ex: Neither of the two traffic lights (is, are) working.

  • It is working.

  • Ex: Either shirt (is, are) fine with me.

  • It is fine with me.


Phrases between the subject verb
Phrases between the Subject & Verb Personal Pronouns

  • You should ignore any phrases between the subject and verb, remembering to just look at the subject.

  • Ex: Everyone of the girls (is, are) tired.

  • She (is) tired.

  • Ex: Melody, as well as her sisters, (like, likes) running.

  • She (likes) running.


Special singular subjects
Special Singular Subjects Personal Pronouns

  • Some nouns that may look plural actually use a singular verb. They can be replace with “he”, “she”, or “it” and it will always work. Ex: aeronautics, athletics, civics, economics, mathematics, physics, measles, mumps, news, molasses.

  • Ex: Mumps (is, are) contagious.

  • It (is) contagious.


Special plural subjects
Special Plural Subjects Personal Pronouns

  • Some other nouns are always considered plural and should be used with a plural noun. You can replace them with the pronoun “they” and it will always work.

  • Ex: pincers, pliers, scales, scissors, shears, tongs, tweezers, clothes, glasses, trousers, suspenders, ashes, proceeds, thanks

  • Ex: The pliers (are, is) in the shed.

  • They (are) in the shed.


Good luck
Good Luck! Personal Pronouns


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