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Networks in Engineering. A network consists of a set of interconnected components that deliver a predictable output to a given set of inputs. Input. Output. Function. Control Systems.

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networks in engineering

Networks in Engineering

A network consists of a set of interconnected components that deliver a predictable output to a given set of inputs.

Input

Output

Function

control systems
Control Systems
  • A control system is characterized by an input, controller and an output. Control systems could be open-loop or closed-loop.
  • Eg : Water level control (closed-loop)

- the objective of this system is to maintain a preset water level through a closed loop control system.

open loop control systems
Open-loop Control Systems
  • The reference signal is directly used to compute the actuating signal.
  • There is no feedback.
  • Operating conditions are fixed and depends on calibration.
  • Not robust to perturbations.
closed loop control systems
Closed-loop Control Systems
  • The output is fed back into the system and compared with the reference signal (input).
  • The difference in signals is used to compute an error signal
  • An actuating signal is derived from the error signal to correct the error.
  • Robust to perturbations
positive and negative feedback
Positive and Negative Feedback
  • Closed loop systems make use of positive and negative feedback.
  • Positive feedback

- eg: amplifiers

  • Negative feedback

- eg: blood pressure control

Input

Input

Output

Output

Transfer Function

Transfer Function

transfer functions
Transfer Functions
  • Control is achieved through the transfer function which determines the nature of the output.
  • Transfer functions govern the relationship between the input and output.

Input

Output

Transfer Function

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