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How the Compromise Collapsed. Chapter 12: The Failure of the Politicians. How the Compromise Collapsed. Ironically, President Pierce , who declared his administration would not be controlled by seeking land, was the man to go full speed ahead searching for new territory.

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How the compromise collapsed

How the Compromise Collapsed

Chapter 12:

The Failure of the Politicians

How the compromise collapsed1
How the Compromise Collapsed

  • Ironically, President Pierce, who declared his administration would not be controlled by seeking land, was the man to go full speed ahead searching for new territory.

  • James Gadsden was sent to buy the northern part of Mexico and all of Lower California

  • Pierre Souléwent to Spain to buy Cuba.

  • Then after Hawaii was reached, Pierce looked into buying Alaska from the Russians.

How the compromise collapsed2
How the Compromise Collapsed

  • Mexico had no interest, but sold a small tract south of the Gila River

  • Northern congressmen, however, were opposed.

  • The Gadsden Purchase was only approved after 9,000 acres were removed from the treaty.

  • Expansion was no longer a means of compromise.

South of Rockys

The ostend manifesto
The Ostend Manifesto

  • President Pierce wanted to buy Cuba for slave territory but Spain would not sell.

  • Secretary of State William L. Marcy sent American ministers to Ostend in Belgium to shape the U.S. policy of Cuba in 1854.

  • The “Ostend Manifesto”, meant to be a secret dispatch to Marcy, reached the press and caused an uproar.

Marcy and his ministers

The ostend manifesto1
The Ostend Manifesto

  • The ministers advised the United States to take Cuba by force if need be.

  • Pierce and Marcy claimed to not want anything to do with this, but Pierce was now labeled as pro-slavery and a war-like expansionist.

  • The Ostend Manifesto firmly identified slavery with expansion.

William L. Marcy

The kansas nebraska act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • Keeping the question of slavery out of congress was the only hope for the success of the Compromise of 1850.

  • Senator Stephen A. Douglas, architect of the Compromise of 1850, was the man to revive the slavery issue in Congress.

  • The American dream was to build a railway from the East to the West.

  • Only organized and surveyed land would be included because government grants controlled the railways.

Stephen Douglas

The kansas nebraska act1
The Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • Douglas introduced a bill providing for Kansas and Nebraska Territory.

  • Southerners would not want a bill passed for anti-slavery states, and Douglas needed their votes.

The kansas nebraska act2
The Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • To win their support, Douglas made two provisions.

    • Missouri Compromise of 1820 would be updated to Compromise of 1850

    • Popular Soverigntywould decide whether the two new states were free or slave states. (Kansas and Nebraska)

The kansas nebraska act3
The Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • He knew the promise would cause problems, but he felt he needed southern votes and Pierce could help him.

  • In 1854 Douglas managed to have his Kansas-Nebraska bill passed.

  • Southerners were happy, but Northerners held protests, transforming the question of slavery into a battle over the spread of slavery to new territories.

Expansion and slavery
Expansion and Slavery

  • The Congressionalbattle over slavery was about where it did not exist and might never go.

  • Northerners did not want the expansion of slavery or to live near and compete with blacks.

  • Several Midwestern states banned blacks.

  • Southerners felt it was an attempt to bar them and their property from territories.

  • The thought the north was trying

    to prevent them from growing.

The new republican party
The New Republican Party

  • In the North, the Kansas-Nebraska bill was greeted by anger. Parties were formed to resist slavery expansion.

  • July 6, 1854, two new parties were founded. One new party was the Republicanparty, who took their platform against slavery, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Fugitive Slave Act.

  • Congressional electionsin November 1854 produced a revolution in American politics.


1851-1852 ((Whigs vs. Democrats))

1854 ((Know Nothing & Republicans vs. Weakened Democrats))

1860s – North vs. South

The new republican party1
The New Republican Party

  • The Old Whig Party was shattered and members joined other parties.

  • The Democratic Party staggerbut did not collapse.

  • In 1852 Democrats were a substantial part of Congress, but in 1854 there were only 83Democrats and 108Republicans.

The know nothing party
The Know-Nothing Party

  • The other 43 representatives of Congress in 1854 were members of the new Know Nothing Party.

  • Know-Nothings were a reaction to the flood of immigrants.

  • The Party grew out of the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, a secret association formed in 1849.

  • Its real name was the AmericanParty.

The know nothing party1
The Know-Nothing Party

  • The group seeks refuge in hate and prejudicerather than real issues of their day.

  • Together, Republicans and Know-Nothings won enough seats to control Congress.

  • It was hard to tell Republicans and Know-Nothings apart, especially when a majority were both.

Bleeding kansas
Bleeding Kansas

  • Douglas thought slavery troubles were banished from Congressto the west.

  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act did bring blood-shedto Kansas.

  • Popular sovereignty did not say when a territory could decide about slavery.

Bleeding kansas1
Bleeding Kansas

  • The Northerners and Southerners raced to the territory to be the first to decide the fate of the land.

  • Antislavery New Englanders raised money to rush emigrants to Kansas.

  • They used guns to fight for popular sovereignty rather than votes.

Bleeding kansas2
Bleeding Kansas

  • Violence in Kansas was inevitable but the situation became critical only twice.

  • In May 1856 a proslavery sheriff led a mob into antislavery Lawrence, sacking and burning the town.

  • Antislavery messiah John Brown led a party including his four sons to a Pottawatomie Creek settlement. They split the men’s skulls there and killed them.

  • Somehow Kansas avoided becoming a territory of total anarchyand civil war.

Antislavery messiah John Brown

Charles sumner is attacked
Charles Sumner is Attacked

  • Charles Sumner delivered a speech called “The Crime Against Kansas” to the Senate using insultingwords to attack the south.

  • Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina was a nephew of a senator and avenged this hate on May 22, 1856 by beating Sumner at his desk with a cane.

  • Brooks resigned and was reelected. He became a southern hero.

  • Sumner became a Northern martyrand never regained his health.

  • Before his return, the empty seat proclaimed northern and southern leaders were no longer on speaking terms.

Brooks beats Sumner with a cane


  • “Did John Brown fail? John Brown began the war that ended American Slavery and made this a free republic. His zeal in the cause of freedom was infinitely superior to mine. Mine was as the taper light; his was as the burning sun.’ I could live for the slave, John Brown could die for them.” – Frederick Douglass