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“Don’t Forget the Women”. Republican Principles Not Meant for Women. Mercy Otis Warren. Property Voting Like Abigail Adams, Mercy Warren questioned….

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Republican principles not meant for women
Republican Principles Not Meant for Women

Mercy Otis Warren

Property

Voting

Like Abigail Adams, Mercy Warren questioned…


If peace and unanimity are cherished, and the equalization of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation; …The people may again be reminded that the elective franchise is in their own hands; that it ought not to be abused either for personal gratifications… This advantage should be improved, not only for the benefit of existing society, but with an eye to that fidelity which is due posterity. 

Mercy

Otis

Warren


Men were concerned women would alter politics
Men were concerned women would alter politics of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation;

Public interest

“politics are too dirty”

Informed enough to vote?


Economic shifts lead to cultural shifts
Economic Shifts lead to Cultural Shifts of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation;


Cultural change influences marriage
Cultural Change Influences Marriage of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation;

  • Romanticism in England - Sentimentalism

  • Marriage for love

  • Companionate Marriage

    • Choice

    • Choice important as family declines in financial sustenance

    • Still might be male dominance in the house

    • Expanded acceptance of divorce (relatively)


18 th century family
18 of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation; th Century Family

Note: Mothers

& number of children


Change in family structure
Change in Family Structure of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation;

  • Fewer children

    • Because…fathers’ inability to provide adeq. Inheritance

    • Less necessary to have children to farm

    • Standard of living and health increases

  • Class dictates structure

    • Nannies, house maids, cooks

      Religion reinforces Women’s role and value

    • Protestant ministers blame men for sexual misconduct

    • Women to teach children moral values


  • Raising children
    Raising Children of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation;

    • Republican

      • Northeast

      • Value and teach independence

      • Distinct from European traditions

    • Rationalist

      • Episcopal and Presbyterian

      • Use advice and praise

      • Invoked Enlightenment ideals

      • Assume children are rational beings

    • Authoritarian

      • Yeoman farmers (Baptist/Methodist)

      • Strict rules, harsh discipline


    Variations in education just as in parenting
    Variations in Education Just as in Parenting of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation;

    • Unifying theme: Education increasingly important

    • Men who did not want women in politics disagreed w/education for both genders

    • Women and some men saw economic and social benefits of education

    • Women more likely to teach for sake of knowledge

      • Women hired as teachers because they could be paid less


    Education for republican economic reasons
    Education for Republican & Economic Reasons of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation;

    Republican: All citizens educated

    Economic: Reading, writing and math

    Economic: Discipline and respect for outside authority


    Regional variations
    Regional Variations of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation;

    • New England: Independence values intellectual development

      • Locally funded elementary schools (reading & writing)

      • Few women went on to high school

      • 1% of men to college

    • Rural Families (+artisans and laborers)

      • Demanded reading, writing & math

      • Believed college education to be elitist

    • By 1820s merchants demanded more uniform education standards & state legislatures acted


    UNC Est. 1789 of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation;

    Middlebury College

    Est. 1800

    Andover Est. 1778

    Abbot Academy est. 1828


    Evidence of utilitarian education
    Evidence of Utilitarian Education of liberty, and the equity and energy of law, maintained by harmony and justice, the present representative government may stand for ages a luminous monument of republican wisdom, virtue and integrity. The principles of the revolution ought ever to be the pole-star of the statesmen, respected by the rising generation;

    Fact: Not until the 1830s and 1840s do American authors achieve professional identity and international prestige

    Female authors become more numerous after 1840 though intellectual women often outcast


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