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Ch.11 – The North. Section 2- Changes in Working Life. Mills Change Workers’ Life. Workers Organize. The Lowell System. Workers did not need skills of craftspeople to run mill machines Mill owners had trouble fining workers Slater began to hire entire families to work in mills (Pawtucket)

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Ch.11 – The North

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Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

Mills Change Workers’ Life

Workers Organize

The Lowell System

  • Workers did not need skills of craftspeople to run mill machines

  • Mill owners had trouble fining workers

  • Slater began to hire entire families to work in mills (Pawtucket)

  • Slater built housing for his worker families & a company store

  • Children often worked in factories for lower wages than adults

  • Slater’s strategy of hiring families known as Rhode Island System

  • Many mill owners copied Slater’s methods

  • Francis Cabot Lowell changed the textile industry by hiring young unmarried women

  • Lowell built boarding houses for the women

  • The “Lowell girls” mad between $2 & $4 dollars a week & paid $1.25 for room & board

  • Many young women came to work for Lowell to earn money

  • Mill life was hard working 12 to 14 hour days

  • Cotton dust caused many health problems-chronic cough

  • Factories threatened craftspeople

  • Factories quickly produced low price goods

  • Wages at factories went down as immigrants competed for jobs

  • Competition for jobs also came due to the Panic of 1837

The Beginning of Trade Unions

Labor Reform Efforts

Facing low wages, skilled worker formed trade unions to improve pay & conditions

Sarah G. Bagley formed Lowell Female Reform Assoc. to obtain 10 hr work day

Sometimes labor unions protested by using strikes-refused to work until demands met

Over time unions gained concrete legal victories-kept fight to end child labor


Slide2 l.jpg

Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

Mills Change Workers’ Life

  • Workers did not need skills of craftspeople to run mill machines

  • Mill owners had trouble fining workers

  • Slater began to hire entire families to work in mills (Pawtucket)

  • Slater built housing for his worker families & a company store

  • Children often worked in factories for lower wages than adults

  • Slater’s strategy of hiring families known as Rhode Island System

  • Many mill owners copied Slater’s methods

  • Workers did not need skills of craftspeople to run mill machines

  • Mill owners had trouble finding workers

  • Slater began to hire entire families to work in mills (Pawtucket)

  • Slater built housing for his worker families & a company store

  • Children often worked in factories for lower wages than adults

  • Slater’s strategy of hiring families known as Rhode Island System

  • Many mill owners copied Slater’s methods


Slide3 l.jpg

Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

Even young children could run the mill machines.

Samuel Slater built boarding houses for his workers.

One of the Lowell factory boarding houses still standing today.


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Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

The Lowell System

  • Francis Cabot Lowell changed the textile industry by hiring young unmarried women

  • Lowell built boarding houses for the women

  • The “Lowell girls” mad between $2 & $4 dollars a week & paid $1.25 for room & board

  • Many young women came to work for Lowell to earn money

  • Mill life was hard working 12 to 14 hour days

  • Cotton dust caused many health problems-chronic cough

  • Francis Cabot Lowell changed the textile industry by hiring young unmarried women

  • Lowell built boarding houses for the women

  • The “Lowell girls” made between $2 & $4 dollars a week & paid $1.25 for room & board

  • Many young women came to work for Lowell to earn money

  • Mill life was hard working 12 to 14 hour days

  • Cotton dust caused many health problems-chronic cough


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Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

Francis Cabot Lowell

Young girls & other factory workers exposed to cotton dust developed health issues.

Lowell girl running the loom.


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Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

Workers Organize

  • Factories threatened craftspeople

  • Factories quickly produced low price goods

  • Wages at factories went down as immigrants competed for jobs

  • Competition for jobs also came due to the Panic of 1837

  • Factories threatened craftspeople

  • Factories quickly produced low price goods

  • Wages at factories went down as immigrants competed for jobs

  • Competition for jobs also came due to the Panic of 1837


Slide7 l.jpg

Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

Workers Organize

  • Factories threatened craftspeople

  • Factories quickly produced low price goods

  • Wages at factories went down as immigrants competed for jobs

  • Competition for jobs also came due to the Panic of 1837

The Beginning of Trade Unions

The Beginning of Trade Unions

Workers begin to organize to gain more pay & better working conditions.

Facing low wages, skilled workers formed trade unions to improve pay & conditions

Facing low wages, skilled worker formed trade unions to improve pay & conditions


Slide8 l.jpg

Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

Workers Organize

  • Factories threatened craftspeople

  • Factories quickly produced low price goods

  • Wages at factories went down as immigrants competed for jobs

  • Competition for jobs also came due to the Panic of 1837

The Beginning of Trade Unions

Strikes for better pay and working conditions were sometimes violent.

Sometimes labor unions protested by using strikes-refused to work until demands met

Facing low wages, skilled worker formed trade unions to improve pay & conditions

Sometimes labor unions protested by using strikes-refused to work until demands met


Slide9 l.jpg

Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

Workers Organize

  • Factories threatened craftspeople

  • Factories quickly produced low price goods

  • Wages at factories went down as immigrants competed for jobs

  • Competition for jobs also came due to the Panic of 1837

Labor Reform Efforts

Labor Reform Efforts

Sarah G. Bagley formed Lowell Female Reform Assoc. to obtain 10 hr work day

Sarah G. Bagley formed Lowell Female Reform Assoc. to obtain 10 hr work day


Slide10 l.jpg

Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

Workers Organize

  • Factories threatened craftspeople

  • Factories quickly produced low price goods

  • Wages at factories went down as immigrants competed for jobs

  • Competition for jobs also came due to the Panic of 1837

Labor Reform Efforts

Sarah G. Bagley formed Lowell Female Reform Assoc. to obtain 10 hr work day

Over time unions gained concrete legal victories- kept fight to end child labor

Over time unions gained concrete legal victories-kept fight to end child labor


Slide11 l.jpg

Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

Mills Change Workers’ Life

Workers Organize

The Lowell System

  • Workers did not need skills of craftspeople to run mill machines

  • Mill owners had trouble fining workers

  • Slater began to hire entire families to work in mills (Pawtucket)

  • Slater built housing for his worker families & a company store

  • Children often worked in factories for lower wages than adults

  • Slater’s strategy of hiring families known as Rhode Island System

  • Many mill owners copied Slater’s methods

  • Francis Cabot Lowell changed the textile industry by hiring young unmarried women

  • Lowell built boarding houses for the women

  • The “Lowell girls” mad between $2 & $4 dollars a week & paid $1.25 for room & board

  • Many young women came to work for Lowell to earn money

  • Mill life was hard working 12 to 14 hour days

  • Cotton dust caused many health problems-chronic cough

  • Factories threatened craftspeople

  • Factories quickly produced low price goods

  • Wages at factories went down as immigrants competed for jobs

  • Competition for jobs also came due to the Panic of 1837

The Beginning of Trade Unions

Labor Reform Efforts

Facing low wages, skilled worker formed trade unions to improve pay & conditions

Sarah G. Bagley formed Lowell Female Reform Assoc. to obtain 10 hr work day

Sometimes labor unions protested by using strikes-refused to work until demands met

Over time unions gained concrete legal victories-kept fight to end child labor


Slide12 l.jpg

Ch.11 – The North

Section 2- Changes in Working Life

Mills Change Workers’ Life

Workers Organize

The Lowell System


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