Separation of matter
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Separation of Matter. MATTER. Can it be physically separated? (ex: filtration or evaporation ). YES. NO. Is it made up of only one type of atom on the periodic table?. Is the composition uniform throughout?. YES. NO. NO. YES. Matter is .

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Separation of Matter

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Separation of matter

Separation of Matter


Matter is

MATTER

Can it be physically separated?

(ex: filtration or evaporation)

YES

NO

Is it made up of only one type of atom on the periodic table?

Is the composition uniform throughout?

YES

NO

NO

YES

Matter is

Anything that has mass and takes up space (volume)

Pure substance

Mixture

Heterogeneous

Compound

Element

Homogenous


Types of matter

Types of matter

  • Uniform, unchanging composition. Pure substances exist as either elements or compounds.

Pure substances-

1. element

ex: silver

2. compound

ex: NaHCO3

  • Found on the periodic table

  • cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means

  • It takes a nuclear reaction to break them apart!

  • two or more elements that are chemically bonded.

  • A chemical change is required to combine elements into compounds, or to separate compounds back into elements.


Separation of matter

Mixtures

2 types

1. heterogeneous mixture

ex:

2. homogeneous mixture

ex:

Not uniform throughout. Made of very large molecules.

Uniform throughout: also called solutions: made of very small molecules.

  • Gas / Liquid: Soda (CO2 in H2O)

  • Gas / Gas: Air (Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, Water Vapor)

  • Liquid / Liquid: Gasoline (mixture of liquid hydrocarbons); Rubbing Alcohol (Isopropyl Alcohol with water); Vinegar (Acetic Acid with water)

  • Solid / Solid: Alloy (mixture of metals), such as brass, steel, 14-karat gold


Example 1

Example 1

  • Soda

  • Rust

  • Iced tea

  • Chicken soup

  • Dirt

  • Chlorine

  • Sugar

  • Gasoline

  • water

homogenous

compound

heterogenous

heterogenous

heterogenous

element

compound

homogenous

compound


Chemical and physical properties

Chemical and Physical Properties


Separation of matter

Remember, density is tricky! While it’s a number, it’s always the same for a substance, no matter how much of it you have!

  • ___Chemical____ properties describe the ability of a substance to undergo changes that transform it into different substances. Some sort of chemical reaction must be performed in order to observe these properties.

  • ___Physical___ properties describe the substance itself. They can be observed or measured without altering the chemical identity of the substance (meaning no chemical reaction is necessary to view these properties)....


Separation of matter

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTY EXAMPLES


Separation of matter

Types of physical properties!!!

1. Extensive physical properties

2. Intensive physical properties

DO DEPEND on the amount of matter present

DO NOT DEPEND on the amount of matter present

**Example 2: Place an I(Intensive) or E(extensive for each of the following properties:

Malleability (hammer into sheet) IMass E

Melting pointIOdor I

Ability to react with acid IVolume E

Ability to react with base IClarity I

Ability to react with waterIColor I

Ability to rustIConsistency I

Ability to tarnishIDensity I

Viscosity (resistance to flow)Ilength E

Boiling pointIArea E

Ability to conduct electricityILuster (shine) I

Dissolves in waterIHardness I

Amount of Energy E

Ductility (ability to be molded) I

Ability to explode (combust) I

Flammability (burning) I


Chemical and physical changes

Chemical and Physical Changes


Changes

Changes

  • Transform one or more substances into new, different substances. They involve some sort of reaction taking place!

Physical Changes Chemical Changes

  • Do not change the identity of a substance. Changes of state are all considered to be physical changes.

  • Just remember:

  • 1) nothing new has formed

  • 2) it is still the same substance

How do we know if its chemical?

heat

  • An unexpected change in _______ energy (hotter or colder)

  • A _________ is produced (bubbling)

  • An unexpected _________ change

  • A solid _____________ is produced (cloudiness)

  • An unexpected apparent _________

  • change (means that a gas was involved)

  • New __________ formed

  • _________ produced (fire)

gas

color

precipitate

mass

odor

light


Example 3

Example 3:

  • All of the processes listed below are part of the digestive breakdown of food. For each of the following, classify them as a chemical or physical change, and give a reason why.

    • A. Chewing food

    • B. Breakdown of proteins

    • C. Breakdown of carbohydrates

    • D. Churning of food

    • E. Starch breakdown

    • F. food reacting with HCl

Physical

Chemical

Chemical

Physical

Chemical

Chemical


States of matter and phase changes

States of Matter and Phase Changes


States of matter

States of Matter

far

Very

container

Definite

container

container

Definite

Definite

Not

Somewhat

Easily


States of matter1

States of Matter

Very

container

Definite

Definite

Definite

Somewhat

Not


States of matter2

States of Matter

far

Very

shape

container

Definite

volume

Definite

Definite

Easily

Not

Somewhat


Example problem

Example Problem

A student determined that the

substance he was working with took the

shape of its container, had molecules

that moved fast and were very far apart.

He also determined that the substance

was easily compressed into a smaller

container.

  • GAS


Separation of matter

  • PHASE CHANGES

  • -the process of absorbing or releasing energy to

  • change from one phase to another phase

The types of phase changes include…

  • ____________: liquid changing to vapor(boiling)

    liquid + energy  vapor (gas)

  • ______________: vapor changing to liquid

    vapor  liquid + energy

  • ___________: solid changing to liquid

    solid + energy  liquid

  • ______________: liquid changing to solid

    liquid  solid + energy

  • _______________: solid changing directly to vapor without going through the liquid phase

    solid + energy  vapor

  • _______________: vapor changing directly to solid without going through the liquid phase

    vapor  solid + energy

Vaporization

Condensation

Melting

Freezing

Sublimation

Deposition


Separation of matter

You will notice that all of the phase changes above either required an input of energy or they released energy. Each phase change is either:

Exothermic:

or

Endothermic:

Example 3-7. Which phase changes are exothermic?

Example 3-8. Which phase changes are endothermic?

A process that releases heat (heat exits the system)

A process that takes in heat (heat enters the system)

Condensation, Freezing, Deposition

Melting, vaporization, sublimation


Thank you for entering the magical world of matter

Thank you for entering the magical world of matter!!


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