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Next Gen CRM. Dick Wolf September, 2012. Command Skills. Role Model Performance. Command Skills. Briefings Outlines Plans & Differences Allocates Tasks Seeks Input Checks Understanding. Situational Awareness Thorough Pre-Flight Preparation Stays Ahead & Updates Plans

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Next gen crm

Next Gen CRM

Dick Wolf

September, 2012


Command skills

Command Skills

Role Model Performance


Command skills1

Command Skills

Briefings

Outlines Plans & Differences

Allocates Tasks

Seeks Input

Checks Understanding

Situational Awareness

Thorough Pre-Flight Preparation

Stays Ahead & Updates Plans

Makes Contingency Plans

Keeps a Broad Perspective

Professional Style

Relaxed and Professional Tone

Aspires to High Performance

Conscientious and Flexible

Self-Aware and Seeks Feedback

Teamwork

Balances Rank Authority

Flexible & Shows Respect

Actively Monitors & Supports

Thinks Independently

Workload

Recognizes a High Workload

Takes or Makes Time

Deals With Overload & Prioritizes

Avoids Distractions & Distracting

Aircraft Handling

Safe/Efficient/Comfortable

Automatic/Manual Flight

Non-Normals/Emergencies

Threat & Error Management

Communication

Shares Information & Ideas

Actively Listens

Assertive When Required

Admits Mistakes & Doubts

Decisions

Identifies Problems & Issues

Involves Others If Needed

Evaluates the Outcome

Uses Structure In New Situations

Applied Knowledge

Technical and Operational

Use of Checklists

SOP’s/Policies

Commercial/Customer Awareness


Command skills2

Command Skills


Command skills3

Command Skills

Teaching Briefing Skills

to

Enhance Situational Awareness


Command skills4

Command Skills

Example FRA Brief

P1: I’m looking at Chart 13-1 Apr 07 VOR 07L date April 07. MSA is 4300’ – expecting radar from TAUNUS to pick up the inbound course 072 FFM. Descent begins at 15.5 DME – we have DME height checks down to minima of 830 + 50 and 1200m RVR required. Missed approach is climb straight ahead to 10 DME or 5000’ and left turn back to TAUNUS VOR. We know the runway is long, good lighting and we can take a high speed turn. For nav we’ll have the VOR and the NDBs. Any questions?

P2: No questions


Command skills5

Command Skills

Disturbing Facts

50% of accidents occur on Approach and Landing

75% of those are on NPA

Most occur on the centre-line

Most are following a 3 degree slope

(...no problem...)


Command skills6

Command Skills

Disturbing Facts


Command skills7

Command Skills

Disturbing Facts


Command skills8

Command Skills

Disturbing Facts

  • 50% of accidents occur on Approach and Landing

  • 75% of those are on NPA

  • Most occur on the centre-line

  • Most are following a 3 degree slope

  • Most are un-briefed or briefed like an ILS!!


Command skills9

Command Skills

A Question

  • What are the differences between an ILS and a NPA?

    • Different Modes

    • High workload

    • More risk

    • Maybe offset

    • Maybe off centerline when we break cloud – visual maneuver required

    • Pilot interprets tracking

    • Pilot interprets glidepath – more communication required between pilots

    • Significance of DME tuning / position

    • Minima different (significance of visibility)

    • Possibly non radar environment / less approach lighting

    • Different configurations

    • Increase likelihood of GA / Diversion

    • 500’ GPWS call gets in the way of minima calls - causing confusion

    • Navaid selection


Command skills10

Command Skills

Conclusions

When it comes to briefings in order to enhance the awareness of our situation:

  • What can we consider as ‘Standard’?

  • What are the Differences?

  • What is the Plan?


Command skills11

Command Skills


Command skills12

Command Skills

Workload

Practical Pilot Skills


Command skills13

Performance

Arousal

Command Skills


Command skills14

Command Skills

Key Question for Pilots:

“What does overload look like?”

“Can it be measured?”


Command skills15

PILOT WORKLOAD

Command Skills

Recognizing Overload

“What should the checklist say?”

“Why haven’t we written one?”


Command skills16

Command Skills

Key Messages – Pilot Expressions

“Hang on a minute”


Command skills17

Command Skills

Situational Awareness


Command skills18

Command Skills

Previous CRM Training

Problem:

  • 80% of accidents involve a loss of SA

    Solution?

  • “Make sure you don’t lose it!”

  • Definitions

    • ‘The accurate perception of the factors and conditions that affect an aircraft and its flight’

    • ‘Where we are in space and time and what is going on around us’


Command skills19

Command Skills

Observing SA Skills

  • How to ascertain (and maintain) SA level


Command skills20

Command Skills

Research Findings…

What good pilots do:

  • Project ahead / Anticipate / Contingency plan

  • Routinely demonstrate self-checking

  • Briefings, Briefings, Briefing

    Therefore, they . . .

  • Are aware of their workload

  • Know when workload is high

  • Know when SA is low


Command skills21

Command Skills

‘Situational Awareness, like money, is hard to get – but is easy to lose’


Command skills22

Command Skills

Briefings

Outlines Plans & Differences

Allocates Tasks

Seeks Input

Checks Understanding

Situational Awareness

Thorough Pre-Flight Preparation

Stays Ahead & Updates Plans

Makes Contingency Plans

Keeps a Broad Perspective

Professional Style

Relaxed and Professional Tone

Aspires to High Performance

Conscientious and Flexible

Self-Aware and Seeks Feedback

Teamwork

Balances Rank Authority

Flexible & Shows Respect

Actively Monitors & Supports

Thinks Independently

Workload

Recognizes a High Workload

Takes or Makes Time

Deals With Overload & Prioritizes

Avoids Distractions & Distracting

Aircraft Handling

Safe/Efficient/Comfortable

Automatic/Manual Flight

Non-Normals/Emergencies

Threat & Error Management

Communication

Shares Information & Ideas

Actively Listens

Assertive When Required

Admits Mistakes & Doubts

Decisions

Identifies Problems & Issues

Involves Others If Needed

Evaluates the Outcome

Uses Structure In New Situations

Applied Knowledge

Technical and Operational

Use of Checklists

SOP’s/Policies

Commercial/Customer Awareness


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