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Mapping for Learning: Mapping. “ A given set of data only acquires significance when we map it onto a pattern of some kind.” (March and Steadman, p.29). Brain Waves. In 1930s, Berger, a German psychiatrist discovered electrical brain waves

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mapping for learning mapping

Mapping for Learning: Mapping

“ A given set of data only acquires significance when we map it onto a pattern of some kind.”

(March and Steadman, p.29)

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

brain waves
Brain Waves
  • In 1930s, Berger, a German psychiatrist discovered electrical brain waves
  • Any stimulus produces electrical responses in the brain called evoked potentials (recorded; averaged to remove noise)
  • When the stimulus is cognitive or intellectual task, the recording is a cognitive evoked potential

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

analyzing brain activity
Analyzing Brain Activity
  • Brain mapping using X-rays makes it possible to see brain structure (CT scan)
  • Brain mapping using radioactive chemicals (PET scan)made it possible to study brain function over time (in intervals of thousandths of a second)
  • Millions of pieces of information can be stored on computers to be analyzed

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

cognitive process of mapping 1
Cognitive Process of Mapping (1)
  • “ A given set of data only acquires significance when we map it onto a pattern of some kind.” (March and Steadman, p.29)
  • Cognitive (process of) mapping = those abilities which enable us to collect, organize, store and recall, and operate on information about our environment

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

cognitive process of mapping 2
Cognitive Process of Mapping (2)
  • Mental map is a product of the cognitive process of mapping - cross sections of the world at one instant in time
  • Key concepts employed in studying cognitive mapping: representation and environment

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

why is cognitive mapping important 1
Why is cognitive mapping important? (1)
  • Draw and describe in one sentence THIS picture.

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

why is cognitive mapping important 2
Why is cognitive mapping important? (2)
  • Are cognitive maps accurate?
  • Is there a 1-1 correspondence between ones representations and the actual spatial environment?
  • Are mental maps similar? Given two individuals, how similar might their maps be of the same environment?
  • Is learning going to induce dissimilarities?

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

how useful are mental maps in everyday life
How Useful Are Mental Maps in Everyday Life?
  • Examples?
  • ...
  • An understanding of how individuals cognitively map an environment can be used to provide a “common” map which can convey the maximum information to the greatest number of individuals

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

research on the cognitive process of mapping
Research on the Cognitive Process of Mapping
  • Think about this moment in which I am trying to convey some (new?) concepts to you
  • What guides this mapping process?

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

mapping problem solving sanford s 1985
Mapping: Problem Solving Sanford’s (1985)
  • A mapping between a problem-statement and relevant schemata in LTM
  • Problem solving begins with the manipulation of this mapping in WM
  • If an information-state developed in WM matches a structure in LTM, a new structure is stored in LTM (WM LTM)

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

problem solving abduction sanford s 1985
Problem Solving & Abduction Sanford’s (1985)
  • A problem  schemata in LTM
  • Manipulation of this mapping in WM
  • WM LTM: a new structure stored in LTM
  • Abduction: The new knowledge-state which a solved problem represents can often be achieved by introducing information from sources external to the problem-statement

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

mathematical mapping
Mathematical Mapping
  • f: XY For every xX there exists exactly one yY such that y=f(x)
  • Is geographical mapping a species of mathematical mapping?
  • Cartography is seen as a type of mathematical modeling involving abstraction
  • Domain?

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

cognitive mapping formal definition
Cognitive Mapping: Formal Definition

Downs and Stea (1973) formally define cognitive mapping as:

… a process composed of a series of psychological transformations by which an individual acquires, codes, stores, recalls, and decodes information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday spatial environment

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

about cognitive maps neisse u 1976
About Cognitive Maps(Neisse, U.,1976)
  • An individual’s cognitive map is an active information seeking structure of which spatial imagery is but one aspect
  • Cognitive maps are created as the result of active and passive modes of information processing

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

cognitive mapping information processing
Cognitive Mapping: Information Processing
  • Generally, active information processing gives the greatest meaning to the information processed and produces more information for the perceiver
  • The information produced by locomotion is fundamental to an individual’s spatial orientation

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

cognitive maps content and form
Cognitive maps: Content and Form
  • Cognitive maps are also made up of memories of objects and kinesthetic, visual and auditory cues (Griffin, D. R. 1973)
  • Aside from the way cognitive maps are formed, the types of information stored in a cognitive map are also of interest

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

what are cognitive maps made up of
What are cognitive maps made up of?

Kuipers (1983) suggests that a cognitive map consists of five different types of information, each with its own representation:

  • topological
  • metric
  • route descriptions
  • fixed features and
  • sensory images

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

cognition independent variables
Cognition: Independent Variables
  • An individual’s cognition of the environment is not only a function of the behavior by which information is obtained but also depends on the characteristics of the environment
  • The amount of information gained by each sensory modality is also environmentally dependent

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

personal nature of cognitive maps
Personal Nature of Cognitive Maps
  • How the observer interprets and organizes a common exterior form is unique (Lynch)
  • This interpretation governs how the observer directs his attention and this in turn affects what is seen/learned. So at both a societal level and a cultural level cognitive maps are highly individualistic

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

references 1
References (1)
  • Downs, R. M. & Stea, D. (1973). Cognitive Maps and Spatial Behavior. Process and Products. In Image and Environment, (Downs, R. M. & Stea, D. Eds.), Aldine Publishing Co., Chicago, pp 8-26
  • Griffin, D. R. (1973) Topographical orientation. In Image and Environment, (Downs, R. M. & Stea, D. Eds.), Aldine Publishing Co., Chicago. pp 296-299.
  • Neisse, U. (1976).Cognition and reality, WH Freemn, San Francisco.

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

references 2
References (2)
  • Kuipers, B. (1983) The cognitive map: Could it be any other way. In Spatial Orientation: Theory, research and application, (Pick, H. L. & Acredolo, L. P. Eds.) Plenium Press, New York. pp 345-360.
  • Billinghurst, M. & Weghorst, S. The use of sketch maps to measure cognitive maps of virtual environment (www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/p-94-1/paper.html)

Mara Alagic: Mapping for Learning

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