Hardware: Input and Processing. Input and Processing Technology. Input. Storage. Processing. Hardware devices can be grouped according to how and where they are used in the four steps of the information processing cycle. . Output. Input.
Hardware devices can be grouped according to how and where they are used in the four steps of the information processing cycle.
The term input refers to data and instructions entered into a computer enabling the computer to perform the task desired by the user.
An input device allows programs, data, commands, and responses to be entered into a computer system.
A mouse uses either a ball or a light sensor to track movement.
Trackball: Plastic sphere resting on rollers, inset in a small, external case
Small box containing a vertical lever that moves the graphics cursor
A program is a series of instructions telling a computer how to perform the tasks necessary to process the data and deliver the desired information.
If, Then, Run
A program can be entered a single time and used again and again.
Data is a collection of raw, unorganized (unprocessed) content in the form of words, numbers, sound, or images.
Data is coded in coding schemes such as ASCII, EBCDIC, and Unicode.
A command is an instruction to a program issued by a user.
A user response tells the program what to do,
or the task to perform.
All computers are digital devices that use the binary number system. They are capable of recognizing only “off” and “on” (“0” and “1”) states. Each of these “0” and “1” digits is called a bit.
Includes microprocessor (CPU), memory boards and chips, ports, expansion slots, and expansion boards
In a personal computer the CPU consists of a microprocessor, or CPU chip, that processes the data. The CPU uses the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit to process data.
Controls activity within the computer.
Performs processing operations on the data.
Chips inside the system unit are used to store programs while they are being executed, and data while it is being processed. The amount of RAM is measured in bytes.
Provides for faster access to instructions and data, speeding up computer applications.
ROM = Chips on which instructions, information, or data has been prerecorded. Once data has been recorded on a ROM chip, it cannot be altered or removed and can only be read by the computer.
can be erased and reprogrammed.
A port is a plug-in slot on a computer for connecting a peripheral device.
An expansion slot is an opening in a computer where a circuit board, called an expansion board, can be inserted to add new capabilities to the computer.
A PC card is a small expansion board that plugs into the side of a notebook or portable computer.
Uses individual atoms to build microscopic, massively parallel
computers that are more powerful than today’s supercomputers