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Public Policy. Graham [Ch 8 in Wiarda]. 4 elements. process complexity & sectors cross-national central state. Graham’s study. role of state in “late modernizers” 15 yr study of devlpt program adminstration Intergovernment management experience Mex, Portugal, Romania (+Braz & FYR)

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Public policy

Public Policy

Graham [Ch 8 in Wiarda]


4 elements

4 elements

  • process

  • complexity & sectors

  • cross-national

  • central state


Graham s study

Graham’s study

  • role of state in “late modernizers”

    • 15 yr study of devlpt program adminstration

  • Intergovernment management experience

  • Mex, Portugal, Romania (+Braz & FYR)

  • Note demands on time for interviews

    • 311 semi-structured & exploratory


Focus

Focus

  • Functional field systems

  • Integrated prefectural systems

  • Unintegrated prefectural systems


Systems

Systems

  • FFS: extensive decentralization

    • FYR, Brazil, US

  • IPS: prefect reports to centre

    • CommE.Eur, pre 74 Portugal

  • UPS: delegation to region office

    • Mex, post 74 Portugal


Cross culture

Cross-culture

  • reliance on state in mixed & socialist

    • FYR devolved

    • Mex raionalized

    • Port/Rom insured local autonomy

  • Thousands of programs

    • no significant reduction of state activity


Study

Study

  • Focus on policy implementation

  • Dependent v = dev policy across time

    • “allocation of $ to accomplish public goals

  • Independent v’s

    • 1 econ/pol structure

    • 2 admin org

    • 3 role expectations of bureaucrats


Indicators

Indicators

  • 1 practices in allocation/ status of individuals and groups/ infor and compliance mechanisms/ authority patterns

    • [how to measure?]

  • 2 pub orgs and sub-units

  • 3 ideology/ soc norms/ org. values/ reference group ID


Questions

Questions

  • What resources 1966-81

    • what determined policy

    • who was involved

    • what was impact

    • feedback

  • [implementation focus??!]


Overcoming obstacles

Overcoming obstacles

  • Resistance to interviews

  • “limited anticipated results”! [182]

  • don’t be tied to interview guide


Findings

Findings

  • Sub-national unit more effective unit of analysis than community

  • unitary/federal best predictor of program implementation differences

  • interesting interaction regional/fed

  • unbalanced devlpt

  • field admin best way to get at central/decentralized mix


Back to basics

Back to basics

  • Massive state intervention

  • Scarce talent

  • State-socialist regimes

  • govt. the only sector assuming responsibility for transformation


Analysis

Analysis

  • Include all public servants

  • Managerial roles in implementation

  • Structure-function


Power styles

Information

structure

inhibition of democracy

pre-occupation with status

lack of senior managers in colonial

Power styles


Economic development

Economic development

  • Devlpt requires innovation

  • Can bureaucracy modernize economy without itself becoming modern?

  • May pre-empt rise of entrepreneurs

    • Merchants harassed

    • Tax a system of tribute


Political development

Political development

  • Differentiation of functions?

  • Premature bureaucracy?

  • Democracy requires separation

  • Modernization requires politicized bureaucracy

  • Decentralization one compromise


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