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Iran . Containment, Nation-building, and a little bit of why they hate us. Culture. Muslim but NOT Arabic Culturally Persian Speak Farsi 1906- Had first democratic revolution in Asia Led to a constitutional monarchy. Modernization. 1908- Oil discovered with the help of British

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Iran

Containment, Nation-building, and a little bit of why they hate us.

culture
Culture
  • Muslim but NOT Arabic
    • Culturally Persian
    • Speak Farsi
  • 1906- Had first democratic revolution in Asia
    • Led to a constitutional monarchy
modernization
Modernization
  • 1908- Oil discovered with the help of British
    • British had a deal in place where they get 85% of profits
  • 1925- Army officer Reza Khan seizes power and declares himself Shah (King)
    • most were nomadic herders or farmers
    • opens schools, builds roads/railroads, encouraged industry and gave more rights to women
    • His son continued modernization
conflict with britain
Conflict with Britain
  • PM Mossedegh wants to nationalize the oil industry
    • Wants a better deal from British (15%-> 50%)
  • UK refuses; begins an embargo (ban) on Iran.
    • Won’t sell sugar, steel, etc
    • Oil Technicians won’t work with them
    • Navy blockades export cities
    • Nation goes bankrupt
coup d etat
Coup d’etat
  • Pres. Truman refused, but Pres. Eisenhower agreed
  • CIA working with MI6.
    • Hired thugs to pose as Communists and start trouble
    • Hired 2nd group to protest against 1st group.
    • Bribed officials
    • Rigged elections in

rural areas

aftermath
Aftermath
  • Gen. Zahedi made Prime Minister
  • As payment, British monopoly on Iranian oil is ended
    • 5 U.S. companies move in
    • Economy does improve-Shah calls this a victory
    • U.S. agrees to fight Communist rebels
  • First time U.S. overthrows a democratic, civil government
motives
Motives
  • Not Oil. U.S. had many sources
    • Did NOT want other places to start thinking about nationalizing oil, though.
    • Didn’t want Soviets to get the oil
  • Red Menace is everywhere
    • China is now communist
    • Fighting North Korea
    • ‘49 – USSR successfully tests atomic bomb
  • Britain is helping U.S. in Korea, had to help them in Iran
the long view
The Long View
  • Overthrows elected gov’t of Guatemala next year
  • Iranians don’t see U.S. as supporters of freedom – just as bad as British
    • Shah is “U.S. puppet”
    • Authoritarian and repressive
  • In ‘79 the “pro-western” Shah would be overthrown and replaced by “anti-western” Islamic Republic
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