Chapter 16 The Civil War Begins 1861-1862. I. Find Out A. How fighting began at Fort Sumter B. The strengths and weaknesses of each side C. Each side’s basic strategy D. The results of the first battle of Bull Run.
The Civil War Begins
A. How fighting began at Fort Sumter
B. The strengths and weaknesses of each
C. Each side’s basic strategy
D. The results of the first battle of Bull Run
the command of Major Robert Anderson. Lincoln decided to send supplies rather than give it to the Confederates.
1. As they seceded from the Union, the Southern states took over most of the federal forts inside their borders. President Abraham Lincoln had to decide what to do about the forts that remained under federal control. Major Robert Anderson and his garrison held on to Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, S.C., but they were running out of supplies.
A. Southern states began seizing federal
forts inside borders once they seceded
B. Lincoln had to decide what to do with
those that remained under federal
C. Fort Sumter was located in the harbor
of Charleston, SC
D. Under command of Major Robert
E. Running out of supplies
E. underLincoln risked war if he supplied Fort Sumter
F. If he ordered the troops to leave, he was
giving in to the rebels
G. Lincoln decided to send supplies (2)
H. April 12, 1861, at 4:30 a.m. shore guns
opened fire on the island fort
i. Fired on the fort for 34 hours
j. Major Anderson surrendered (3)
k. Civil War had begun
Fort Sumter Under Attack under
Although there were no casualties during the bombardment, one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded (one mortally) when a cannon exploded prematurely when firing a salute during the evacuation.
F. Lincoln Calls Out the one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded (one mortally) when a cannon exploded prematurely when firing a salute during the evacuation.
1. Asked for 75,000 militiamen to volunteer for 90 days to put down the uprising (4)
2. Citizens of North responded with
3. Robert E. Lee resigned from Union to fight for the
4. He could not turn his back on his birthplace, home, or children (6)
5. With Virginia on its side, the Confederacy had a much better chance for victory because it was wealthy and populous. The Confederacy moved its capital to Richmond, Va., in May of 1861.
1. Four original border states played a key role in the outcome of the war
2. Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky,& Missouri
3. They were states that bordered states where slavery was illegal
4. Provided a buffer between US and Confederacy (7)
Maryland was of critical importance because losing it would cut off Washington, DC, the nation’s capital, from the rest of the Union. (8)
Kentucky’s rivers made it important because they provided an invasion route for the North and barrier for the South. (9)
1. Union has 22 million in population
2. South has 9 million (3.5 M in slaves)
3. 85% of factories in North
4. North has double the railroad mileage
5. Almost all naval power and shipyards
6. Great leader in Abraham Lincoln
I. Confederate Advantages (12) one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded (one mortally) when a cannon exploded prematurely when firing a salute during the evacuation.
1. Able generals like Robert E. Lee
2. Fighting a defensive war
3. Defending their homeland
1. Take a defensive position and not conquer North
2. King Cotton
a. Hoped to win foreign support through
b. Withheld cotton from market
c. Wanted France and Britain to aid cause
d. Surplus in 1861 ruined plan
e. Began to take offensive and win big
1. Bring Southern states back into Union
2. Called Anaconda plan
a. Smother South’s economy
b. Blockade southern coastline
c. Gain control of the Mississippi River
and split the Confederacy in two
The goal of the Anaconda Plan was to cut the South in half by blockading Southern ports and capturing the Mississippi River. This plan was devised by General Winfield Scott.
1. Confederate troops stationed at Manassas, Va., SW of Washington, D.C.
2. July 21, 1861, Union forces led by
General Irvin McDowell clashed with
Confederate troops led by Gen. Pierre
3. Little creek was called Bull Run where
battle was held
4. Stonewall Jackson’s nickname
5. “Rebel Yell”
6. First major battle of war
Bull Run was a small creek that was located north of Manassas, Virginia, a railway center southwest of Washington, D.C. On July 21, 1861, Union and Confederate troops clashed in the first real battle of the Civil War. The battle turned into a convincing Confederate victory (15), and General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson received his famous nickname for standing tall “like a stonewall” in the face of the battle (16).
Stonewall Jackson standing tall Manassas, Virginia, a railway center southwest of Washington, D.C. On July 21, 1861, Union and Confederate troops clashed in the first real battle of the Civil War.
during the first Battle of Bull Run.
After standing their ground in the face of battle
during the Union charge, the Rebels soon
Received 9,000 reinforcements which turned
the tide of the battle their way. The disorganized
Union retreat back to Washington meant defeat
for the Union troops.
A. Find Out
1. Who joined the armies
2. Describe military training and supplies of the era
3. Summarize the hardships of army life
4. Identify changes in military technology
The North expected a quick victory when they clashed with Confederates at the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861. Afterwards, the North realized that the war was not going to be as quick as they thought.
1. Most soldiers on both sides were between 18-30 (1)
2. Farmers made up largest group (2)
3. Many immigrants from other countries served.
German and Irish made up largest group. (3)
4. African Americans served for North later in war (4)
5. Native Americans served on both sides (5)
6. In all, about 2 million American soldiers served the Union, and fewer than 1 million served in the Confederacy. The
vast majority were volunteers, seeking adventure and
1. Army camps looked like a sea of canvas
2. Grouped by company with 2-20 men in a
3. Men elected their company officers
4. Followed routine after roll call and breakfast
a. Drill sessions
b. Guard duty, cut wood, dug trenches,
cleaned up the camp (8)
Civil War camps often looked like a sea of canvas tents. Life in the camps was often difficult and demanding.
5. Uniforms soldiers.
a. Union soldiers wore blue uniforms (9)
b. Confederates- gray or yellowish- brown (9)
c. Both sides faced shortages of uniforms of the right size was a problem and often traded (9)
d. Confederate troops often marched over frozen ground with no shoes
6. Union clothing often poor quality because contractors took advantage of the government’s need and supplied shoddy goods (10)
7. Confederates differed from state to state
8. Needy soldiers often took clothes off the dead soldiers (11)
9. Soldiers often went hungry because supply trains couldn’t reach the battlefield (12)
10. Food consisted of beef or salt pork, flour,
vegetables, and coffee
D. Hardships of Army Life took advantage of the government’s need and supplied shoddy goods (10)
1. Soldiers were often wet, muddy, or cold from marching outdoors and living in crude shelters
2. Many camps were unsanitary and smelled from garbage and latrines (13)
3. Soldiers as well as camps were filthy as they often went weeks without bathing or washing their clothes, and became infested with lice and fleas
4. Poor hygiene resulted in widespread sickness.
Most soldiers had chronic diarrhea or other intestinal disorder. These disorders were caused by contaminated water or food or by germ-carrying insects. People didn’t know that germs caused diseases. (15)
5. Unclean instruments of doctors caused disease
1. Rifles with grooved barrels allowed bullets to spin and be more accurate with longer distance
2. Rifles with minié balls
3. Ironclad ships changed naval warfare on both sides as wooden ships were clad with iron
Lead mini took advantage of the government’s need and supplied shoddy goods (10)é balls changed battle field tactics because they could shoot more accurately than round balls. When they entered the body they flattened out which caused more serious damage to the body. More soldiers died from infections after being shot than by the wounds themselves.
USS Monitor (Union) and the Merrimack (Virginia) squared off in the first ironclad battle on March 9, 1862, off the coast of Virginia. The battle ended in a stalemate.
A. Find Out
1. Analyze the Union victories in the
2. Explain how the fall of New Orleans
helped the Union
3. Analyze Lee’s victories in the East and
his decision to invade the North
4. Describe the Battle of Antietam
B. Union Victories in the West in the first ironclad battle on March 9, 1862, off the coast of Virginia. The battle ended in a stalemate.
1. February of 1862
2. Ulysses S. Grant moves on Tennessee
3. Uses ironclad gunboats
4. Captures two Confederate river forts(1)
a. Fort Henry on the Tennessee River
b. Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River
5. Opened up river highway into the
heart of the South
6. Grant’s army moved into Nashville
and people fled the city in panic (2)
By taking Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, Grant opened the South for Union victories through river travel. After Grant’s river victories,
Albert S. Johnston, Confederate commander on the western front, ordered a retreat to Corinth, MS. Grant followed. By early April (1862), Grant’s troops had reached Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. There Grant waited for more troops from Nashville. Johnston decided to attack before Grant gained reinforcements. (3)
C. The Battle of Shiloh (Place of Peace) South for Union victories through river travel.
1. Confederate commander Albert S.
Johnston moved troops to Corinth, MS
2. Grant moved his troops to Pittsburg
Landing in Tennessee
3. Johnston’s army surprised Grant’s
troops at the in fiercest fighting of the war in the Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee (4)
4. Union Victory
a. 13,000 Union causalities, about ¼ who fought
b. 11,000 of 41,000 Confederates were causalities (5)
5. Lincoln says he can’t replace Grant because he fights despite heavy criticism (6)
D. The Fall of New Orleans South for Union victories through river travel.
1. April 25, 1862, Union fleet led by
David Farragut captured New Orleans
2. Largest city in the South
3. Rebel gunboats tried to ram Union
warships, sinking one
4. Dodge burning rafts
5. Left only 150 miles of Mississippi in
Confederate hands, nearly cutting South in two (7)
After capturing New Orleans in 1862, only 150 miles of the Mississippi remained in Union hands.
E. Lee Claims Victories in the East Mississippi remained in Union hands.
1. Spring 1862 Gen. McClellan (Union) decides to capture Richmond
2. Took troops in stretch of land between
York and James Rivers, a few miles
within Richmond (8)
3. Robert E. Lee took command of Army of Northern Virginia in June of 1862 (9)
4. Lee sent Jeb Stuart and Calvary of 1000 men to survey Union army size (10)
5. Robert E. Lee attacked McClellan’s army
6. Seven Days’ Battles lead to Confederate victory
6. From June 25 to July 1, 1862
7. Forced McClellan to retreat and Richmond was saved (11)
8. 2 Mississippi remained in Union hands.nd Battle of Bull Run in August, 1862
9. Another Confederate victory
F. Lee Invades the North
1. Crucial time with North at low point
2. Crossed Potomac and invaded Maryland
in early September of 1862
3. Hoped victory in the North might get
Lincoln to talk peace
4. Might convince France and Britain to
aid South if they won a victory (12)
G. Bloody Antietam Mississippi remained in Union hands.
1. Union soldier finds battle plans
2. Gave McClellan a chance to stop Lee
3. McClellan moved slowly again (13)
4. Armies clashed on September 17,1862
5. Sharpsburg, MD, at Antietam Creek
6. Bloodiest single day battle in American history
7. Neither side gained much ground
8. 25,000 casualties
9. Lee lost 1/3 of fighting force and withdrew to Virginia (14)
10. McClellan didn’t follow and was later fired
Lincoln was so fed up with McClellan failing to go on the offensive that he fired him after the Battle of Antietam when McClellan didn’t follow Lee’s army into Virginia.