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生物技术一班 游琼英 20052503420. Lipid metabolism ( 脂代谢 ). AA metabolism( 氨基酸代谢 ). Nucleotide anabolism and catabolism ( 核苷酸代谢 ). ATP. ADP+Pi. -. -. -. -. CHO. CH 2 OH. CH 3. CH 2 OH. CH 2 OH. -. -. -. -. CHOH. C=O. C=O. HCOH.

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生物技术一班 游琼英 20052503420

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20052503420

生物技术一班游琼英20052503420


20052503420

Lipid metabolism (脂代谢)

AA metabolism(氨基酸代谢)

Nucleotide anabolism and catabolism (核苷酸代谢)


20052503420

ATP

ADP+Pi

-

-

-

-

CHO

CH2OH

CH3

CH2OH

CH2OH

-

-

-

-

CHOH

C=O

C=O

HCOH

HCOH

CH2OH

CH2O-P

CH2O-P

COOH

CH2O-P

Fatty acid anabolism(分解)

NAD+

NADH +H+

甘油激酶

磷酸甘油脱氢酶

磷酸酯酶

磷酸丙糖

异构酶

糖异生

葡萄糖

EMP

TCA

-

CO2+H2O

乙酰COA

-

  • carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism connect by 磷酸二羟丙酮。

  • Metabolism in liver.


20052503420

The oxidation of the fatty acid

activationofFatty Acid out of mt

enoyl -CoAβ-oxidation in mt acetyl-CoA TCACO2、H2O、ATP


20052503420

A. The activation of the fatty acid(活化)


20052503420

B. The transfer of enoyl-CoA


20052503420

2、饱和脂肪酸的β-氧化

(在mt和乙醛酸体中进行)

β-氧化:FA活化生成脂酰CoA进入线粒体基质

后,在脂酰基的β碳原子上依次进

行脱氢, 加水,再脱氢,硫解,

四步反应,生成一分子乙酰CoA和

脂酰CoA(比原来少2个C)的过程。


20052503420

  • oxidation


20052503420

  • Hydrate(水合)


20052503420

  • dehydrogen (脱H)


20052503420

  • 硫解


20052503420

Citric acid cycle

H

C

C

O

C

O

O

H

3

+

(1)

C

o

A

S

H

N

A

D

+

乙酰 CoA

草酰乙酸

N

A

D

H

+

H

C

O

2

C

H

C

O

~

S

C

o

A

3

(10)

O

C

C

O

O

H

H

C

C

O

O

H

L-苹果酸

(2)

+

H

O

C

C

O

O

H

H

2

H 2 O

C

C

O

O

H

(9)

N

A

D

H

+

H

+

H

N

A

D

2

H O

C

o

A

S

H

2

C

H

C

O

O

H

H

C

C

O

O

H

2

延胡索酸

C

(

O

H

)

C

O

O

H

(3)

C

C

O

O

H

H

C

H

C

O

O

H

2

F

A

D

H

2

(8)

C

H

C

O

O

H

2

F

A

D

C

H

C

O

O

H

+

H

C

C

O

O

H

C

H

(

O

H

)

C

O

O

H

琥珀酸

2

(4)

C

C

O

O

H

+

N

A

D

(

P

)

G

T

P

H

2

C

o

A

S

H

N

A

D

(

P

)

H

+

H

(7)

G

D

P

+

P

i

C

H

C

O

O

H

2

o

A

C

H

C

O

O

H

(5)

H

草酰琥珀酸

C

H

C

O

O

H

2 O

2

+

+

C

H

C

O

C

O

O

H

C

O

~

S

C

N

A

D

N

A

D

H

+

H

2

C

O

C

H

2

2

(6)

C

H

琥珀酰 CoA

2

C

O

C

O

O

H

α-酮戊二酸

C

O

O

H

C

O

C

o

A

S

H

2


20052503420

O

=

RC=CCO~SCOA

OH

RCH-CH2CO~SCOA

O

=

RC-CH2CO~SCOA

β-oxidation

RCH2CH2COOH

脂酰COA脱H酶(3种)

RCH2CH2CO~SCOA

(脂酰COA)

H

-

-

H

(△2反式烯脂酰COA)

继续β-氧化

-

R-C~SCOA+ CH3-C~SCOA

(L-β- 羟脂酰COA)


20052503420

The energy product by the fatty acid β-oxidation

  • activation:-2ATP

  • one turn of β-oxidation:

    1FADH2, 1NADH, 1acetyl-CoA

  • (1.5ATP) (2.5ATP) (TCA cycle: 10ATP)


20052503420

1. Ketone bodies(酮体)

丙酮

乙酰乙酸

β-羟丁酸


20052503420

  • lipid synthesis

柠檬酸将乙酰CoA从mt运到胞液

Acetyl-CoA transfer into mitochondrion by citrate pyruvate cycle(柠檬酸丙酮酸循环) from cytosol


20052503420

catabolism

①dehydration

②the first deoxidize

③dehydration

④the second deoxidize

Make1mol软脂酸-ACP has 7 turns

总反应:8乙酰-S-CoA + 14NADPH + 14H+ + 7ATP

软脂酸+ 8HSCOA + 14NADP+ + 7ADP + 7Pi +6H2O


20052503420

NADP+

烯脂酰-ACP还原酶

转酰基酶

NADPH+H+

6

1b

HSCoA

1a

HOOCCH2CO-SCoA

乙酰CoA-ACP转酰基酶

CH3COSCoA

HO H

丙二酰CoA-ACP转酰基酶

β-羟脂酰-

ACP脱水酶

5

2

CoASH

3

β-酮脂酰-ACP合酶

4

NADP+

β-酮脂酰-ACP还原酶

CO2

NADPH+H+

加氢

启动

脱水

装载

加氢

缩合


20052503420

RCOCOOH+NH3

脱氨基

脱羧基

RCH2NH2+CO2

RCH-COOH

NH2

AA metabolism(氨基酸代谢)


20052503420

(一)deamination(脱氨基作用)

(二) transamination(转氨基作用)

(三)combined deamination(联合脱氨)


20052503420

(一)deamination(脱氨基作用)

1. Oxidative deamination(氧化脱氨)


20052503420

2.L-glutamate dehydrogenase (L-谷氨酸脱氢酶)


20052503420

(2).transamination(转氨作用)

amino acid

Accepter keto acid

transaminase

New amino acid

New keto acid

谷丙转氨酶(glutamic pyruvic transaminase,GPT),谷草转氨酶(glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase,GOT)


20052503420

α-KG

转氨酶

谷氨酸脱氢酶

谷氨酸

Combined deamination(联合脱氨)


20052503420

urea cycle(尿素循环)


20052503420

1. 氨甲酰磷酸的合成

2. 瓜氨酸的合成

3. 由瓜氨酸合成精氨基琥珀酸

4. 生成Arg

5. Arg的水解


20052503420

The urea cycle

总方程式


20052503420

one carbon unit一碳单位

methyl(—CH3,甲基)

methylene(—CH2—,甲叉基)

methenyl(—CH=,甲川基)

formyl(—CHO,甲酰基)

formamino(—CH=NH,亚氨甲基)


20052503420

one carbon unit(一碳单位) often link to FH4 when they react with others.


20052503420

Nucleotide anabolism(分解代谢)

Nucleotide catabolism(合成代谢)


Nucleotide anabolism

核酸

核苷酸

核苷 + Pi

碱基 + 戊糖-1-P

Nucleotide anabolism(分解代谢)


20052503420

核酸中的嘌呤主要是Ade、Gua首先脱氨,分别生成次黄嘌呤和黄嘌呤,再进一步代谢生成尿酸。


20052503420

AMP

IMP

GMP

Nucleotide catabolism(合成代谢)

(一)嘌呤核苷酸的生物合成

1. De novo synthesis(从头合成途径)

First ,synthesize IMP


The origins of the purine ring

The origins of the purine ring


20052503420

先合成IMP


20052503420

IMP合成AMP和GMP


The origins of pyrimidine rings

The origins of pyrimidine rings


20052503420

The pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway(生物合成途径)


20052503420

CTP synthesis from UTP


20052503420

The end


20052503420

thank you!!


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