Introduction to research methods
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Introduction to Research Methods. Research Defined. Systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing data for a purpose. Research methods – the methodology, how we do it. Levels of Research. Basic Test theories Often in a lab setting May have limited direct applicability

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Introduction to Research Methods

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Introduction to research methods

Introduction to Research Methods


Research defined

Research Defined

  • Systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing data for a purpose.

  • Research methods – the methodology, how we do it.


Levels of research

Levels of Research

  • Basic

    • Test theories

    • Often in a lab setting

    • May have limited direct applicability

    • Not designed to solve social problems

Theory – predicts & explains generalizable findings


Levels of research1

Levels of Research

  • Applied

    • Field & application oriented

    • Less controlled setting

    • Relies on a theoretical foundation, but not designed to test theory

  • Evaluation

    • Focused on a particular setting or practice

    • Merit & worth of something


Research vs evaluation

Research vs. Evaluation

Research

Evaluation

  • Systematic

  • Undertaken to establish facts & principles that contribute to a knowledge base

  • Systematic

  • Undertaken to address some criteria to make judgments about the worth of something


Research vs evaluation1

Research vs. Evaluation

Research

Evaluation

  • Prove disprove hypothesis…

  • Improvement in areas (ie. Personnel, programs, policies)


Hypothesis

Hypothesis

  • Educated guess about the outcomes of a study

  • SM= A Heisman trophy winner will positively impact ticket sales and donor contributions the following season.

  • PE= The self-perception of female physical education pre-service teachers will include strong willed behavior, positive presentation and appearance, and aggressive and dominant behavior.

  • RM= The more serious a triathlete is about the sport, the more likely they are to use negotiation strategies in order to participate as much as desired.


Research vs evaluation2

Research vs. Evaluation

Research

Evaluation

  • New knowledge, may not be immediately applicable

  • Theory building

  • Problem solving & decision making

  • Problem based


Research vs evaluation3

Research vs. Evaluation

Research

Evaluation

  • Generalizability

  • Published

  • Not generalizable

  • Used by the organization


Variables

Variables

  • Variables

    • Any entity that can take on different values/varies

    • IV = Manipulated, treatment

    • DV = Effect of the IV, measured

    • Cause (IV) & effect (DV)


Variables1

Variables

Independent (Manipulated)

Dependent (Measured)

  • Physical activity levels

  • Televised games

  • Management style

  • Game day experiences

  • Daily PE

  • Weight

  • In game attendance

  • Use of ee rewards

  • Attendance

  • BMI


Types of studies 3

Types of Studies (3)

  • Descriptive

    • Describes what is going on & what exists

  • Relational

    • Relationship between 2 variables

  • Causal

    • Cause/effect a variable has on another


Qual vs quan

QualvsQuan

Quantitative

Qualitative

  • Analysis of numeric data

  • Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data.

  • Analysis of words, actions, objects

  • Researcher is the data gathering instrument thru interviews, observations, documents


Scientific method

Scientific Method

  • 1. Developing the problem

    • Topic of study, issue

    • Variables

      • SM: Use of social media=increase ticket sales

      • PE: Increased time in daily PE=decreased obesity rates

      • RM: Increased presence in parks=decreased criminal activity


Scientific method1

Scientific Method

  • 2. Formulating the hypothesis

    • Expected results

    • Rely on experience & the literature

    • Study either supports or refutes hypothesis

  • 3. Gathering the data

    • Process/methodology

    • Instruments

    • Data gathering process


Scientific method2

Scientific Method

  • 4. Analyzing & interpreting the results

    • Statistics

    • Comparisons

    • Dissemination of results


Content of a r esearch article 7

Content of a Research Article (7)

  • Abstract

    • Short summary paragraph @ 150 words


Content of a research article 7

Content of a Research Article (7)

  • Introduction

    • Put study into context

    • Overview of topic

    • Significance to profession/relevance

    • Research ?’s at end of intro… findthem in your article

  • Review of literature

    • Summarizes & analyzes previous research

    • Theoretical framework


Content of a research article 71

Content of a Research Article (7)

  • Research hypothesis or question (if applicable to journal)

  • Results

    • Stats, tables, analysis


Content of a r esearch article 71

Content of a Research Article (7)

  • Discussions, implications & conclusions

    • What was learned

    • How results relate to previous research

    • Impact on profession

    • Any unusual results

    • Future research… findthem in your article

    • Generalizability

  • References


What is a research p roblem

What is a Research Problem?

  • Research Problem

    • Issue, controversy, or concern that initiates the study

    • What level of tickets are most impacted by a winning football season?

    • How does social media impact athletic event attendance?


What is a research problem

What is a Research Problem?

  • Examples…

    • What percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) PE class and recess contribute to 6th grade students overall daily PA.

    • What are the biggest motivations and/or reasons why students attend home athletic contests?

    • To determine if a certain Myers-Briggs personality type is more successful selling tickets in Major League Baseball


I need a problem

I Need a Problem!

  • Personal experience & supervisor

  • Talk with your advisor

  • Look at the literature


I need a problem1

I Need a Problem!

  • Choose something…

    • Of interest

    • Feasible

    • Not too broad

    • Not too technical

    • Impacts the profession

    • Online list…


I need a problem2

I Need a Problem!

  • 3 criteria for a good problem

    • Problem can be researched

    • Requires more than a yes/no answer

    • Information can be gathered for some type of analysis


Purpose of the study

Purpose of the Study

  • Purpose statement

    • One sentence stating what the study is investigating

    • Allows reader to quickly identify what the study is about

    • Usually found at the end of the introduction or the first paragraph

    • Examples…


Purpose of the study1

Purpose of the Study

  • The purpose of this study was to explore luxury suite ownership in professional sports and to provide suite sales and facility management professionals an increased understanding of luxury suite ownership

  • The purpose of this study was to determine an overall competency framework that can be used for parks and recreation boards regardless of whether they are independent, semi-independent, or advisory in nature.

  • The purpose of the study was to examine first year physical education teachers’ perceptions of levels of support provided by their trained mentors.


Research question s

Research Question(s)

  • More clearly define the research problem

  • Focus the study

  • Relationship to the hypothesis…


Introduction to research methods

The purpose of this study is to determine if personality type of sport sales professionals impacts job success.

RQ #1: What personality type is most successful among sport sales professionals?

RQ #2: What personality type is least successful among sport sales professionals?

RQ #3: What aspects of a personality type enhances the success of a sport sales professional?

  • Hy. #1: X personality type is most successful among sport sales professionals

  • Hy. #2: Y personality type is least successful among sport sales professionals?

  • Hy. #3: XYZ aspects of a personality type enhance the success of a sport sales professional


Introduction to research methods

The purpose of this study is to determine if personality type of sport sales professionals impacts job success.

  • Null Hypothesis

    • There is no difference in personality types among successful sports sales professionals.

    • No one personality type determines success in sport sales professionals.


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