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Introduction to Research Methods. Research Defined. Systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing data for a purpose. Research methods – the methodology, how we do it. Levels of Research. Basic Test theories Often in a lab setting May have limited direct applicability

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research defined
Research Defined
  • Systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing data for a purpose.
  • Research methods – the methodology, how we do it.
levels of research
Levels of Research
  • Basic
    • Test theories
    • Often in a lab setting
    • May have limited direct applicability
    • Not designed to solve social problems

Theory – predicts & explains generalizable findings

levels of research1
Levels of Research
  • Applied
    • Field & application oriented
    • Less controlled setting
    • Relies on a theoretical foundation, but not designed to test theory
  • Evaluation
    • Focused on a particular setting or practice
    • Merit & worth of something
research vs evaluation
Research vs. Evaluation

Research

Evaluation

  • Systematic
  • Undertaken to establish facts & principles that contribute to a knowledge base
  • Systematic
  • Undertaken to address some criteria to make judgments about the worth of something
research vs evaluation1
Research vs. Evaluation

Research

Evaluation

  • Prove disprove hypothesis…
  • Improvement in areas (ie. Personnel, programs, policies)
hypothesis
Hypothesis
  • Educated guess about the outcomes of a study
  • SM= A Heisman trophy winner will positively impact ticket sales and donor contributions the following season.
  • PE= The self-perception of female physical education pre-service teachers will include strong willed behavior, positive presentation and appearance, and aggressive and dominant behavior.
  • RM= The more serious a triathlete is about the sport, the more likely they are to use negotiation strategies in order to participate as much as desired.
research vs evaluation2
Research vs. Evaluation

Research

Evaluation

  • New knowledge, may not be immediately applicable
  • Theory building
  • Problem solving & decision making
  • Problem based
research vs evaluation3
Research vs. Evaluation

Research

Evaluation

  • Generalizability
  • Published
  • Not generalizable
  • Used by the organization
variables
Variables
  • Variables
    • Any entity that can take on different values/varies
    • IV = Manipulated, treatment
    • DV = Effect of the IV, measured
    • Cause (IV) & effect (DV)
variables1
Variables

Independent (Manipulated)

Dependent (Measured)

  • Physical activity levels
  • Televised games
  • Management style
  • Game day experiences
  • Daily PE
  • Weight
  • In game attendance
  • Use of ee rewards
  • Attendance
  • BMI
types of studies 3
Types of Studies (3)
  • Descriptive
    • Describes what is going on & what exists
  • Relational
    • Relationship between 2 variables
  • Causal
    • Cause/effect a variable has on another
qual vs quan
QualvsQuan

Quantitative

Qualitative

  • Analysis of numeric data
  • Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data.
  • Analysis of words, actions, objects
  • Researcher is the data gathering instrument thru interviews, observations, documents
scientific method
Scientific Method
  • 1. Developing the problem
    • Topic of study, issue
    • Variables
      • SM: Use of social media=increase ticket sales
      • PE: Increased time in daily PE=decreased obesity rates
      • RM: Increased presence in parks=decreased criminal activity
scientific method1
Scientific Method
  • 2. Formulating the hypothesis
    • Expected results
    • Rely on experience & the literature
    • Study either supports or refutes hypothesis
  • 3. Gathering the data
    • Process/methodology
    • Instruments
    • Data gathering process
scientific method2
Scientific Method
  • 4. Analyzing & interpreting the results
    • Statistics
    • Comparisons
    • Dissemination of results
content of a r esearch article 7
Content of a Research Article (7)
  • Abstract
    • Short summary paragraph @ 150 words
content of a research article 7
Content of a Research Article (7)
  • Introduction
    • Put study into context
    • Overview of topic
    • Significance to profession/relevance
    • Research ?’s at end of intro… findthem in your article
  • Review of literature
    • Summarizes & analyzes previous research
    • Theoretical framework
content of a research article 71
Content of a Research Article (7)
  • Research hypothesis or question (if applicable to journal)
  • Results
    • Stats, tables, analysis
content of a r esearch article 71
Content of a Research Article (7)
  • Discussions, implications & conclusions
    • What was learned
    • How results relate to previous research
    • Impact on profession
    • Any unusual results
    • Future research… findthem in your article
    • Generalizability
  • References
what is a research p roblem
What is a Research Problem?
  • Research Problem
    • Issue, controversy, or concern that initiates the study
    • What level of tickets are most impacted by a winning football season?
    • How does social media impact athletic event attendance?
what is a research problem
What is a Research Problem?
  • Examples…
    • What percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) PE class and recess contribute to 6th grade students overall daily PA.
    • What are the biggest motivations and/or reasons why students attend home athletic contests?
    • To determine if a certain Myers-Briggs personality type is more successful selling tickets in Major League Baseball
i need a problem
I Need a Problem!
  • Personal experience & supervisor
  • Talk with your advisor
  • Look at the literature
i need a problem1
I Need a Problem!
  • Choose something…
    • Of interest
    • Feasible
    • Not too broad
    • Not too technical
    • Impacts the profession
    • Online list…
i need a problem2
I Need a Problem!
  • 3 criteria for a good problem
    • Problem can be researched
    • Requires more than a yes/no answer
    • Information can be gathered for some type of analysis
purpose of the study
Purpose of the Study
  • Purpose statement
    • One sentence stating what the study is investigating
    • Allows reader to quickly identify what the study is about
    • Usually found at the end of the introduction or the first paragraph
    • Examples…
purpose of the study1
Purpose of the Study
  • The purpose of this study was to explore luxury suite ownership in professional sports and to provide suite sales and facility management professionals an increased understanding of luxury suite ownership
  • The purpose of this study was to determine an overall competency framework that can be used for parks and recreation boards regardless of whether they are independent, semi-independent, or advisory in nature.
  • The purpose of the study was to examine first year physical education teachers’ perceptions of levels of support provided by their trained mentors.
research question s
Research Question(s)
  • More clearly define the research problem
  • Focus the study
  • Relationship to the hypothesis…
slide29
The purpose of this study is to determine if personality type of sport sales professionals impacts job success.

RQ #1: What personality type is most successful among sport sales professionals?

RQ #2: What personality type is least successful among sport sales professionals?

RQ #3: What aspects of a personality type enhances the success of a sport sales professional?

  • Hy. #1: X personality type is most successful among sport sales professionals
  • Hy. #2: Y personality type is least successful among sport sales professionals?
  • Hy. #3: XYZ aspects of a personality type enhance the success of a sport sales professional
slide30
The purpose of this study is to determine if personality type of sport sales professionals impacts job success.
  • Null Hypothesis
    • There is no difference in personality types among successful sports sales professionals.
    • No one personality type determines success in sport sales professionals.
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