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Chapter III Terrestrial Wireless. Nyoman Suryadipta, ST, CCNA , CCNP. Definition. Terestrial  ( terrestrial ) berarti terkait dengan tanah atau permukaan tanah ( terra , tanah ). (Wikipedia)

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Nyoman suryadipta st ccna ccnp

Chapter III

Terrestrial Wireless

Nyoman Suryadipta, ST, CCNA, CCNP


Definition

Definition

Terestrial (terrestrial) berartiterkaitdengantanahataupermukaantanah (terra, tanah).

(Wikipedia)

Secaraumumterestrial wireless mengacupadasistemTransmisinirkabelGelombangelektromagnetikmelaluijaringantransmisiberbasisdarat (land-based transmitter) 

Wireless Terestrial = Wireless MAN (Metro Area Network)


Global wireless standards

Global Wireless Standards

WAN

3GPP, EDGE (GSM)

MAN

HiperMAN & HiperAccess

IEEE 802.16 WirelessMAN

ETSI

BRAN

LAN

IEEE 802.11

WirelessLAN

HiperLAN/2

PAN

IEEE 802.15 Bluetooth

ETSI BRAN : European Telecommunications Standards Institute – Broadband Radio Access Network

GSC-9, Seoul


Ieee 802 standard institute of electrical and electronics engineers

IEEE 802 StandardInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

  • 802.3 : CSMA/CD (Ehernet)

  • 802.4 : Token Bus

  • 802.5 : Token Ring

  • 802.6 : MAN

  • 802.11 : Wireless LAN

  • 802.12 : Gigabit LAN

  • 802.16 : Fixed Broadband Wireless Access System


Electromagnetic spectrum

Electromagnetic Spectrum


Fixed terestrial wireless fixed broadband wireless access

Fixed TerestrialWireless(Fixed Broadband Wireless Access)

  • WLL

  • BWA

  • Radio Link (Backhaul)


Wll wireless local loop

WLL (Wireless Local Loop)

  • KonfigurasiPoint to Point atau Point to Multipoint

  • Frekuensikerja 3,5 GHz

  • Kapasitassistem (Bandwidth)

    Base Station

    Kapasitas Base Station : Max. 64 x E-1 (Sektorial 180°)

    Interface to backhaul : N x E-1

    Remote

    KapasitasRemote Station : 64 Kbps s/d 256 Kbps

    Interface to user : 1 serial (V.35) & 1 Eth. 10/100 BaseT

  • Misal : Merk AS 4000 (Serial) dan AS 4020 (IP Based)


Bwa broadband wireless access

BWA (Broadband Wireless Access)

  • Misal : Walkair-SIEMENS

  • KonfigurasiPoint to Multipoint

  • Frekuensikerja 3,5 GHz dan 10,5 GHz

  • Kapasitassistem (Bandwidth)

    - Base Station

    1 Sektor 1 IF-MUX (Maks. 8 BS-BU) (90°)

    Tiap BS-BU menempatikanal 1.75 MHz bandwidth per 1 Carrier:

    - 2 * E1 (4 Mbps) net payload

    - Max 16 Terminal Stations

    Jumlahkanal (carriers) per sector :

    - 3.5GHz: Max. 8 carriers per Sector (14 MHz) atau : 16xE1(32 Mbps)

    - 10.5GHz: Max. 8 carriers per Sector (14 MHz) atau : 16xE1(32 Mbps)

  • Kapasitassistem (Bandwidth)

    - Remote

    Kapasitas Remote Station : 64 Kbps s/d N x E-1

    Maks. Bandwidth : 4 E1/BS-BU

    Interface to user : 1 E1, 1 serial (V.35) & 1 Eth. 10/100 BaseT


Nyoman suryadipta st ccna ccnp

Alvarion

Airspan

Axxcelera

Siemens

Aperto

Redline

SR Telecom

Telsima


Bwa3 redline

BWA3 Redline


Radio link

Radio Link

  • Frekuensikerja 8 GHz dan 13 GHz

  • KonfigurasiPoint to Point

  • MiniwaveODU

  • 15/23/26/38GHz

  • 1E12FSK Modulation

  • 2E14-FSK Modulation

  • Single “multiway” connector

  • Indoor AC or DC supply

  • G.703, or V.36 Interface

  • Outdoor passive or active

  • DC Only

  • Misal : Nokia (4 x E1, Eth. 10/100 Base-T), Fresnel (4 x E1, Eth. 10/100 Base-T, E3), Harris Truepoint 5000 (STM-1), Ceragon (STM-1)


Nyoman suryadipta st ccna ccnp

Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) Architecture

Other architectures:

- Point-to-Point (PTP)

- Multipoint-to-Multipoint (Mesh)

GSC-9, Seoul


Nyoman suryadipta st ccna ccnp

HiperAccess Details (1 of 4)

Network Topology Model

- one APT per carrier

- one APC per cell

- several sectors per cell

- several carriers per sector

- overlapping cells (separated

by frequency or polarization)

Cell with four sectors

GSC-9, Seoul


Pengkanalan pita 10 5 ghz

PENGKANALAN PITA 10.5 GHz

10154

10161

10168

10175

10182

10189

10196

10203

10210

fc (DL)

10157.5

10164.5

10171.5

10178.5

10185.5

10192.5

10199.5

10206.5

kanal 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

fc (UL)

10507.5

10514.5

10521.5

10528.5

10535.5

10542.5

10549.5

10556.5

10504

10511

10518

10525

10532

10539

10546

10553

10560

10150

10154

10210

10294

10504

10560

10644

10650

8 x 7 MHz (DownLink)

6 x 14 MHz (DownLink)

8 x 7 MHz (UpLink)

6 x 14 MHz (UpLink)

GuardBand

GuardBand

4 MHz

6 MHz

10210

10224

10238

10252

10266

10280

10294

fc (DL)

10217

10231

10245

10259

10273

10287

kanal 1

2

3

4

5

6

fc (UL)

10567

10581

10595

10609

10623

10637

10560

10574

10588

10602

10616

10630

10644


Link budget tools redline

Link Budget Tools REDLINE

Parameter yang dimasukkan

Parameter RSSI yang dilihat


Rf signal strength

RF Signal Strength


Rssi received signal strength indicator

RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)


Advantages of fixed wireless

Advantages of Fixed Wireless

  • High Speed

  • High Reliability “Five 99999”

  • Long Range

  • Rapid Deployment

  • Low Operating Cost

  • No Cables to Trench / Maintain

  • Minimal right of way issues

  • Weather-proof (below 10 GHz)


The fixed wireless space

The Fixed Wireless Space

  • Above 11 GHz

    • LMDS Systems

    • Limited Range (Rain equates to < 5 km)

    • Although high speed, overall cost of ownership extremely high

      • RADIOS ARE EXPENSIVE, MULTIPLE REPEATERS OFTEN REQUIRED, LICENSED BANDS

  • Below 11 GHz

    • Licensed-Exempt vs Licensed

    • Lower Frequency = longer range

    • 1st Gen (Spread Spectrum) vs 2nd Gen (OFDM etc)

    • WLAN based versus BFW Designed


Common fixed wireless applications

Common Fixed Wireless Applications

  • Backhaul

    • Telecom / Carriers

    • Wireless Internet Service Providers

    • Mobile Wireless Backhaul

    • Hotspot

  • Public Access

    • Multi Tenant Units / Multi Dwelling Units

    • Small, Medium, Large Enterprises

    • Residential

  • Private Networks

    • Schools, Government, Utilities, Hospitals

    • Manufacturing, Oil Rigs, SCADA

    • Video Surveillance

    • Business Continuity / Disaster Recovery


Common applications business continuity disaster recovery

Common Applications Business Continuity / Disaster Recovery


Common applications mobility backhaul

Common Applications: Mobility Backhaul


Common applications multi tenant multi dwelling

Common Applications: Multi Tenant / Multi Dwelling


Common applications telephony

Common Applications: Telephony


Common applications business continuity disaster recovery1

Common Applications Business Continuity / Disaster Recovery


Common applications private networks schools hospitals government

Common Applications: Private Networks: Schools / Hospitals / Government


Common applications oil rigs

Common Applications:Oil Rigs


Radio propagation

Radio Propagation

Radio propagation is the behavior of radio waves when they are transmitted, or propagated from one point on the Earth to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere.

As a form of electromagnetic radiation, like light waves, radio waves are affected by the phenomena of:

reflection, diffraction, absorption and scattering.


Radio propagation1

Radio Propagation

  • Augustin-Jean Fresnel1788–1827), was a French engineer who contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics. Fresnel studied the behaviour of light both theoretically and experimentally.


Nyoman suryadipta st ccna ccnp

Fresnel zone: D is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver; r is the radius of the first Fresnel zone (n=1) at point P. P is d1 away from the transmitter, and d2 away from the receiver.

The concept of Fresnel zone clearance may be used to analyze interference by obstacles near the path of a radio beam


Nyoman suryadipta st ccna ccnp

The general equation for calculating the Fresnel zone radius at any point P in between the endpoints of the link 

where,

Fn = The Fresnel Zone radius in metres

d1 = The distance of P from one end in metres

d2 = The distance of P from the other end in metres

 = The wavelength of the transmitted signal in metres

Where

r = radius in metres

D = total distance in kilometres

f = frequency transmitted in gigahertz.


Nyoman suryadipta st ccna ccnp

Fresnel Zone

… from buildings

…and trees

… gives rise to multipath and diffractive effects creating inter-symbol interference (ISI) and severe signal fluctuations….


Antenna systems

Antenna Systems

  • Omni Directional Antenna Systems

    • Dual Omnis for Monopole Towers

  • Directional / Sectorised Antenna Systems

    • Directional Antenna for wall and side-of-tower mounts

    • Sectored Antenna Configurations (constructed from 6 Antenna Systems)

Omni Directional Antenna System

Type: Mutually Coupled Dual Omni Antennas

Construction: Stacked Dipoles

Directional / Sectorised Antenna System

Type: Dual Directional Antennas

Construction: Microstrip


Rain fade

Rain Fade

  • Rain fade refers primarily to the absorption of a microwaveradio frequency (RF) signal by atmospheric rain, snow or ice, and losses are especially prevalent at frequencies above 11 GHz.


Throughput

Throughput


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