Exoplanet Detection Techniques I
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 111

Exoplanet Detection Techniques I GUASA 12/10/2013 Prof. Sara Seager MIT PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 101 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Exoplanet Detection Techniques I GUASA 12/10/2013 Prof. Sara Seager MIT. Exoplanet Detection Techniques I. Introduction Planet Definition List of Planet Detection Techniques Planet Detection Techniques in More Detail Radial Velocity Transits Lecture I Summary.

Download Presentation

Exoplanet Detection Techniques I GUASA 12/10/2013 Prof. Sara Seager MIT

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

Exoplanet Detection Techniques I

GUASA 12/10/2013

Prof. Sara Seager MIT


Exoplanet detection techniques i

Exoplanet Detection Techniques I

  • Introduction

  • Planet Definition

  • List of Planet Detection Techniques

  • Planet Detection Techniques in More Detail

    • Radial Velocity

    • Transits

  • Lecture I Summary


Planet occurrence from kepler

Planet Occurrence from Kepler

Fraction of stars with planets (P < 50 days)

Planet size (relative to Earth)

Howard, 2013


Planet occurrence from ground based rv

Planet Occurrence from Ground-Based RV

Fraction of stars with planets (P < 50 days)

Planet mass (relative to Earth)

Howard, 2013


Known planets 2013

Known Planets 2013

Based on data compiled by J. Schneider


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

http://eyes.jpl.nasa.gov/exoplanets/index.html


Exoplanet detection techniques i1

Exoplanet Detection Techniques I

  • Introduction

  • Planet Definition

  • List of Planet Detection Techniques

  • Planet Detection Techniques in More Detail

    • Radial Velocity

    • Transits

  • Lecture I Summary


What is a planet

What is a Planet?

?


What is a planet1

What is a Planet?

Planet sizes are to scale. Separations are not.

Characterizing extrasolar planets: very different from solar system planets,

yet solar system planets are their local analogues


What is a planet2

What is a Planet?

  • No satisfactory definition.

  • There is an official definition, that was socially engineered


What is a planet3

What is a Planet?

  • The IAU members gathered at the 2006 General Assembly agreed that a "planet" is defined as a celestial body that

    • (a) is in orbit around the Sun,

    • (b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and

    • (c) has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

  • Official definition precipitated by “new Plutos”, the so-called dwarf planets

  • For an interesting discussion see

  • http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/eightplanets/

  • http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/dwarfplanets/

    and links therein.

Figure credit M. Brown


What is an exoplanet

What is an Exoplanet?

  • The IAU WGESP has agreed to the following statements (subject to change):

  • 1) Objects with true masses below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium (currently calculated to be 13 Jupiter masses for objects of solar metallicity) that orbit stars or stellar remnants are "planets" (no matter how they formed). The minimum mass/size required for an extrasolar object to be considered a planet should be the same as that used in our Solar System.

  • 2) Substellar objects with true masses above the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are "brown dwarfs", no matter how they formed nor where they are located.

  • 3) Free-floating objects in young star clusters with masses below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are not "planets", but are "sub-brown dwarfs" (or whatever name is most appropriate).


What is an exoplanet1

What is an Exoplanet?

  • A planet outside of our solar system


Who can name exoplanets

Who Can Name Exoplanets?

  • In 2009, the Organizing Committee of IAU Commission 53 Extrasolar Planets (WGESP) on exoplanets discussed the possibility of giving popular names to exoplanets in addition to their existing catalogue designation (for instance HD 85512 b). Although no consensus was reached, the majority was not in favour of this possibility at the time.

  • However, considering the ever increasing interest of the general public in being involved in the discovery and understanding of the Universe, the IAU decided in 2013 to restart the discussion of the naming procedure for exoplanets and assess the need to have popular names as well. In 2013 the members of Commission 53 will be consulted in this respect and the result of this will be made public on this page.

  • The nomenclature for exoplanets is indeed a difficult matter that deserves careful attention in many aspects. Such a system must take into account that discoveries are often tentative, later to be confirmed or rejected, possibly by several different methods, and that several planets belonging to the same star may eventually be discovered, again possibly by different means. Thus, considerable care and experience are required in its design.

  • http://www.iau.org/public/themes/naming/#exoplanets

  • http://www.iau.org/static/public/naming/planets_and_satellites.pdf


Exoplanet detection techniques i2

Exoplanet Detection Techniques I

  • Introduction

  • Planet Definition

  • List of Planet Detection Techniques

  • Planet Detection Techniques in More Detail

    • Radial Velocity

    • Transits

  • Lecture I Summary


Wikipedia list

Wikipedia List

  • 1 Established detection methods

  • 1.1 Radial velocity

  • 1.2 Transit method

  • 1.3 Orbital light variations (direct non-resolved detection)

  • 1.4 Light variations due to Relativistic Beaming

  • 1.5 Light variations due to ellipsoidal variations

  • 1.6 Timing variations

  • 1.6.1 Pulsartiming

  • 1.6.2 Pulsation frequency (variable star timing)

  • 1.6.3 Transit timing variation method (TTV)

  • 1.6.4 Transit duration variation method (TDV)

  • 1.6.5 Eclipsing binary minima timing

  • 1.7 Gravitational microlensing

  • 1.8 Direct imaging

  • 1.8.1 Early discoveries

  • 1.8.2 Imaging instruments

  • 1.9 Polarimetry

  • 1.10 Astrometry

Wow! Way too many concepts.


Wikipedia list1

Wikipedia List

  • 1 Established detection methods

  • 1.1 Radial velocity

  • 1.2 Transit method

  • 1.3 Orbital light variations (direct non-resolved detection)

  • 1.4 Light variations due to Relativistic Beaming

  • 1.5 Light variations due to ellipsoidal variations

  • 1.6 Timing variations

  • 1.6.1 Pulsartiming

  • 1.6.2 Pulsation frequency (variable star timing)

  • 1.6.3 Transit timing variation method (TTV)

  • 1.6.4 Transit duration variation method (TDV)

  • 1.6.5 Eclipsing binary minima timing

  • 1.7 Gravitational microlensing

  • 1.8 Direct imaging

  • 1.8.1 Early discoveries

  • 1.8.2 Imaging instruments

  • 1.9 Polarimetry

  • 1.10 Astrometry


Known planets 20131

Known Planets 2013

Based on data compiled by J. Schneider


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

The points show the masses versus semimajor axis in units of the snow line distance for the exoplanets that have been discovered by various methods as of Dec. 2011. See the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia (http://exoplanet.eu/) and the Exoplanet Data Explorer (http://exoplanets.org/). Here we have taken the snow line distance to be asl = 2.7 AU(M∗/M⊙). Radial velocity detections (here what is actually plotted is Mp sin i) are indicated by red circles (blue for those also known to be transiting), transit detections are indicated by blue triangles if detected from the ground and as purple diamonds if detected from space, microlensing detections are indicated by green pentagons, direct detections are indicated by magenta squares, and detections from pulsar timing are indicated by yellow stars. The letters indicate the locations of the Solar System planets. The shaded regions show rough estimates of the sensitivity of various surveys using various methods, demonstrating their complementarity.

Wright and Gaudi 2012, arXiv:1210.2471


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

Ideally we would learn how to write down all of these equations. But this would be a whole week of classes


Exoplanet detection techniques i3

Exoplanet Detection Techniques I

  • Introduction

  • Planet Definition

  • List of Planet Detection Techniques

  • Planet Detection Techniques in More Detail

    • Radial Velocity

    • Transits

  • Lecture I Summary


Radial velocity preview

Radial Velocity Preview

K

Mayor and Queloz 1995

Today we will estimate exoplanet mass from radial velocity data sets


Rv lecture contents

RV Lecture Contents

  • Radial Velocity Definition

  • Planet Mass Derivation

  • Tour of Radial Velocity Curves

  • Measuring Planet Masses

  • Controversial RV Planet Detections


Radial velocity definition

“Radial Velocity” Definition

  • Radial velocity is the velocity of an object in the direction of the line of sight

  • In other words, the object’s speed straight towards you, or straight away from you


Radial velocity definition1

“Radial Velocity” Definition


Radial velocity in context

Radial Velocity in Context

  • How fast is 10 m/s? 1m/s?

  • What RV amplitude is required to detect a Jupiter-twin? An Earth twin?

  • Vote for

    • 10 m/s

    • 1 m/s

    • 0.1 m/s

    • 0.01 m/s

    • 0.001 m/s

Mayor and Queloz 1995


Radial velocity derivation

Radial Velocity Derivation

  • Today we will derive the star’s line-of-sight velocity, caused by the star’s motion about planet-star common center of mass

  • We will assume zero eccentricity, and an edge-on orbit (i=90 and sin i = 1)


Animation

Animation

  • http://astro.unl.edu/classaction/animations/light/radialvelocitydemo.html

  • http://astro.unl.edu/classaction/animations/extrasolarplanets/radialvelocitysimulator.html


Rv lecture contents1

RV Lecture Contents

  • Radial Velocity Definition

  • Planet Mass Derivation

  • Tour of Radial Velocity Curves

  • Measuring Planet Masses

  • Controversial RV Planet Detections


Planet mass derivation

Planet Mass Derivation

  • We start with an equation for the line-of-sight velocity of the star--the observable

  • K is called the radial velocity amplitude

  • The planet and star are orbiting their common center of mass


Center of mass

Center of Mass

m1r1 = m2r2

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/binaries/astrometric.html


Planet mass derivation1

Planet Mass Derivation

Star velocity

K the variable arbitrarily assigned to the star velocity

Center of mass

Definition

Kepler’s Third Law

How many equations and how many unknown variables?

Assume the period is known from the observations


Planet mass derivation2

Planet Mass Derivation

  • From last page

  • Sub above into Kepler’s Third Law

  • Sub above into

    v = K =2a/P

  • Algebra to get mp using mp << m*


Planet mass derivation3

Planet Mass Derivation

  • Here is the planet mass formula for a planet on an eccentric orbit with an orbital inclination away from edge-on.


Minimum mass concept

Minimum Mass Concept

  • Minimum mass concept

  • http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/R/radial_velocity_method.html


Rv lecture contents2

RV Lecture Contents

  • Radial Velocity Definition

  • Planet Mass Derivation

  • Tour of Radial Velocity Curves

  • Measuring Planet Masses

  • Controversial RV Planet Detections


Example 1

Example 1

Courtesy G. Torres


Example 11

Example 1

  • M dwarf star eclipsing another star

  • Period = 3.80 days

Courtesy G. Torres


Example 2

Example 2

Lopez-Morales 2005


Example 21

Example 2

  • Eclipsing binary star

  • Each star is

    M* ~ 0.6 Msun

  • P = 0.488 days

http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/RadialVelocityCurve.html

Lopez-Morales 2005


Example 3

Example 3

Rivera et al. ApJ, 2005


Example 31

Example 3

  • GJ876 b and c

  • Notice the “glitches”

  • The planets are interacting and one has changing orbital parameters

Rivera et al. ApJ, 2005

www.exoplanets.org


Example 4

Example 4

Rivera et al. ApJ, 2005


Example 41

Example 4

  • GJ 876d a 7.5 M planet

  • Discovered after GJ 876b and c

  • A three-planet system; one we modeled during the first class

  • Shown are the three planets from examples 3 and 4

Rivera et al. ApJ, 2005


Example 5

Example 5

Butler et al. 1996


Example 6

Example 6

Butler et al. 2996


Examples 5 and 6

Examples 5 and 6

  • Ups And

  • A 3-planet system

  • One we modeled for the first class

Butler et al. 1996


Example 7

Example 7


Example 71

P = 1.95 days

Mp = 12.6 MJ

Rp = 2.1 RJ

But… turned out to be a spurious signal!

Example 7


Example 8

Example 8

Pepe et al. 2002


Example 81

Example 8

  • Planet on an eccentric orbit

  • e = 0.498

  • P = 10.9 days

  • a = 0.104

  • M* = 1.22 Msun

  • Mp = 0.4 MJ

Pepe et al. 2002


Example 9

Example 9

Naef et al. 200


Example 91

Example 9

  • Planet on a very eccentric orbit!

  • e = 0.927 +/- 0.012

  • P = 112 days

  • a = 0.469

  • M* = 1.1 Msun

  • Mp = 3.9 MJ

Naef et al. 200


Rv lecture contents3

RV Lecture Contents

  • Radial Velocity Definition

  • Planet Mass Derivation

  • Tour of Radial Velocity Curves

  • Measuring Planet Masses

  • Controversial RV Planets


Let s try it

Let’s Try It!

  • Measure the minimum planet mass in the 51 Peg example

  • K = 50 m/s; m* = 1.1 msun, P = 4.23 days

  • G = 6.67300 × 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2

  • msun = 1.9891 × 1030kg, mJ ~ 0.001 Msun


Example 12

Example 1

K

P = 4.23077 d

a = 0.052

M* = 1.1 Msun

Mayor and Queloz 1995


Example 22

Example 2

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

P = 5.3683 d

a = 0.041

M* = 0.31 Msun

Orbital Phase

Udry et al. 2007


Radial velocity for jupiter

Radial Velocity for Jupiter

  • Find a scaling relationship from the previous Example 1.

  • m* ~ 1 Msun

  • K ~ 50 m/s

  • mp sin i ~ 0.5

  • P ~4 d


Radial velocity for earth

Radial Velocity for Earth

  • Find a scaling relationship from the previous Example 1.

  • m* ~ 1 Msun

  • K ~ 50 m/s

  • mp sin i ~ 0.5

  • P ~4 d

  • 320 MEarth ~ 1 MJ


Exoplanet equations

Exoplanet Equations

  • The great thing about exoplanets is many concepts are accessible for undergraduate math and physics

  • Radial velocity is the only example we will work out in detail, but most of the other methods are equally accessible

  • I encourage you to work things out on your own


Rv lecture contents4

RV Lecture Contents

  • Radial Velocity Definition

  • Planet Mass Derivation

  • Tour of Radial Velocity Curves

  • Measuring Planet Masses

  • Controversial RV Planet Detections


Gj 581 g

GJ 581 g

  • THE LICK–CARNEGIE EXOPLANET SURVEY: A 3.1 M⊕ PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE OF THE NEARBY M3V STAR GLIESE 581

  • Vogt et al., ApJ, 2010

  • 11 years of HIRES precision radial velocities (RVs) of the nearby M3V star Gliese 581

  • The authors removed each planet, in order of signal strength, assuming a circular orbit

  • Concern is that signals were accidentally introduced

  • Followup observations by other teams have not validated GJ 581 g, yet the original authors claim the planet is still present


Alpha cen b b

Alpha Cen B b

  • An Earth-mass planet orbiting Alpha Cen B

  • Dumusque et al Nature, 2012

  • P = 3.236 d, a = 0.04 AU,

  • The authors removed many signals: instrumental noise, stellar oscillation modes, granulation, rotational activity signal, long0term activity signal (i.e., solar cycle), binary orbital motion, binary light contamination

  • Concern is that so many elements have to be fit and removed fro the data that a planet signal may have accidentally been introduced


Rv lecture summary

RV Lecture Summary

  • Radial velocity (RV) definition

  • Planet mass

  • Key features in RV curves

  • Radial velocity fitting


Exoplanet detection techniques i4

Exoplanet Detection Techniques I

  • Introduction

  • Planet Definition

  • List of Planet Detection Techniques

  • Planet Detection Techniques in More Detail

    • Radial Velocity

    • Transits

  • Lecture I Summary


Transits

Transits

  • Transits were and are being covered by Dr. Martin Still

  • The following slides are you to read through at your convenience

  • I will go over some of the slides in detail


Transit lecture contents

Transit Lecture Contents

  • What is a Transiting Planet?

  • Tour of Transit Light Curves

  • Transit Observables and Planet/Star Properties

  • Beyond an Ideal Transit

    • Noise

    • Limb Darkening


Which images are real

Which Images are Real?


Which images are real1

Which Images are Real?

Venus. Trace Satellite. June 8 2004.

Schneider and Pasachoff.

Mercury. Trace Satellite. November 1999.

HD209458b. November 1999. Lynnette Cook.


Some terminology

Some Terminology

  • Transit: passage of a smaller celestial body or its shadow across a larger celestial body.

  • Occultation: the temporary apparent disappearance from view of a celestial body as another body passes across the line of sight.

  • Eclipse: the partial or complete obscuring, relative to a designated observer, of one celestial body by another.


Anatomy of a transit

Anatomy of a Transit


Transit animation

Transit Animation

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a4M4Es3aQ7Mhttp://astro.unl.edu/naap/esp/animations/transitSimulator.html


Flux ratio

Flux Ratio

  • Measurable: planet-to-star flux ratio

  • Outcome: planet-to-star area ratio

Drop in star brightness as measured from graph


Transit lecture contents1

Transit Lecture Contents

  • What is a Transiting Planet?

  • Tour of Transit Light Curves

  • Transit Observables and Planet/Star Properties

  • Beyond an Ideal Transit

    • Noise

    • Limb Darkening


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

HD 209458b: Rplanet=1.35 RJup, Rstar=1.2 Rsun

Hubble Space Telescope

Brown et al. 2001


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

HD 189733b: Rplanet=0.8 RJup, Rstar=1.15 Rsun

Hubble Space Telescope

Pont et al. 2007starspots!


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

HD 209458b: Rplanet=1.35 RJup, Rstar=1.2 Rsun

Spitzer

24 microns

Richardson et al. 2006


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

GJ 436b:

Rplanet=4.3 REarth, Rstar=0.42 Rsun

Spitzer

8 microns

Deming et al. 2007


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

TrES-1:

Rplanet=1.08 RJup, Rstar=0.82 Rsun

Hubble Space Telescope

(picture courtesy of oklo.org)


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

TrES-3: Rplanet=1.295 RJup, Rstar=0.802 Rsun

Ground based telescopes

O’Donovan et al. 2007


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

HD 149026b: Rplanet=0.755 RJup, Rstar=1.457 Rsun

Spitzer -- 8 microns

Nutzman et al. 2008


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

Synthetic transits around sun:

A = close-in Earth

B = variable star

C = Jupiter

D = “Neptune” (5 RE)

E = "SuperEarth” (10 RE)

F=binary star

All images: Rstar=1.0 Rsun


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

HD 209458b: Rplanet=1.35 RJup, Rstar=1.2 Rsun

First-ever amateur observation of an exoplanet

http://www.ursa.fi/sirius/HD209458/HD209458_eng.html


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

(Torres et al. 2008)


Transit lecture contents2

Transit Lecture Contents

  • What is a Transiting Planet?

  • Tour of Transit Light Curves

  • Transit Observables and Planet/Star Properties

  • Beyond an Ideal Transit

    • Noise

    • Limb Darkening


Anatomy of a transit1

Anatomy of a Transit

Note the flat bottom of the transit light curve when the planet is fully superimposed on the stellar disk

Note 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th contacts


Transit light curve derivation

Transit Light Curve Derivation

  • We can solve for the planet mass, planet radius, star mass, star radius, and inclination from the equations and solutions for a transiting planet.

  • We will investigate the case for a central transit (inclination = 0)


Flux ratio1

Flux Ratio

  • Measurable: planet-to-star flux ratio

  • Outcome: planet-to-star area ratio

Drop in star brightness as measured from graph


Transit duration

Transit Duration

  • The transit duration is set by the fraction of the total orbit for which a planet eclipses the stellar disk.

  • For a central transit and for Rp << R*<< a

Sackett 1998


Transit duration1

Transit Duration

  • Measurable: P, tT

  • Rewrite the transit formula with measurables on the right hand side


Transit duration2

Transit Duration

  • For a non-central transit is left for you to work out on your own

Sackett 1998


Kepler s third law

Kepler’s Third Law

  • Period is measurable, and we use the equation for Kepler’s Third Law


Stellar mass radius relation

Stellar Mass-Radius Relation

Assume the stellar-mass radius relationship is known

x ~ 0.8 for sun-like stars

x = k = 1 for lower mass stars


Putting the equations together

Putting the Equations Together

  • Four equations

  • Four unknowns Rp, a, R*, M*.

  • Measured from the transit light curve: tT, Fno transit, Ftransit,

  • Given P, x,k

  • Conclusion: from the transit we may learn about the planet size and orbit and star mass and radius

1.

2.

3.

4.


Let s try it1

Let’s Try It!

  • P = 3.941534

  • x = 1, k = 1/0.928

  • tT = ?

  • F = ?

  • Then find Rp and a

Holman et al. 2006


Exoplanet detection techniques i guasa 12 10 2013 prof sara seager mit

Hint: use algebra before plugging in numbers

P = 3.941534 tT = ?

x = 1, k = 1/0.928F = ?

Then find Rp and a


Path to the estimate

Path to the Estimate

  • Use equations (2) and (3) to find an expression for R*

  • Use equation (4) to find a second expression for R*

  • Take the above two equations and solve for R*

  • Use equation (2) to find a

  • Use equation (1) to find Rp

  • F ~ 0.02, tT ~ 0.11


Answer from a full fit

Answer From a Full Fit

  • Rp/R* = 0.13102

  • R* = 0.928

  • M* = 1.0

  • Rp = 1.184 RJ

  • a = 0.05 AU

  • (i = 89.31 degrees)

Holman et al. 2006

McCullough et al. 2006


Transit lecture contents3

Transit Lecture Contents

  • What is a Transiting Planet?

  • Tour of Transit Light Curves

  • Transit Observables and Planet/Star Properties

  • Beyond an Ideal Transit

    • Noise

    • Limb Darkening


Transit light curves

Transit Light Curves

  • Hubble Space Telescope

  • HD209458b

Brown et al. ApJ 2001


Limb darkening

Limb Darkening

Knutson et al. 2006


Limb darkening1

Limb Darkening

  • At the edges of the star we can only see the cooler, darker, outer layers

  • At the center of the star we can see the hotter, brighter inner layers

  • At an intermediate distance between star center and edge we can see warm layers, for the same path length

Wikipedia


Limb darkening2

Limb Darkening

  • Limb darkening: the diminishing of intensity in a star image from the center to the edge or “limb” of an image

  • Stars look a different size at different wavelengths

  • At blue wavelengths we see an inner, hotter shell of the star

  • Vice-versa at red wavelengths

Knutson et al. 2006


Limb darkening3

Limb Darkening


Limb darkening4

Limb Darkening


Why is limb darkening a problem

Why is Limb Darkening a Problem?

  • No limb darkening: planet transit light curve has a flat bottom

  • Limb darkening: curvature in the transit light curve

    • Harder to tell where ingress and egress start and end, hence simple parameter derivation used in class does not work

    • Curvature in light curve can be confused with grazing binary stars

Torres 2007

Drake and Cook 2004


Why is noise a problem

Why is Noise a Problem?

  • Increased noise reduces the accuracy of parameters (mass, radius, etc) derived from the transit light curve

McCullough et al. 2006


Transit lecture summary

Transit Lecture Summary

  • Definition of a Transiting Planet

  • Transit Light Curve Observables Derivation

    • Estimated transit duration, depth, time

    • Derived M*, R*, Rp, a for a central transit

  • Real Transit Light Curves

    • Noise

    • Limb Darkening


Lecture i summary

Lecture I Summary

Exoplanets come in all masses, sizes, orbit parameters

Many different exoplanet discovery techniques are known

Radial velocity and transit finding are the most successful to date

Based on data compiled by J. Schneider


  • Login