Introduction to 8086 microprocessor
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Introduction to 8086 Microprocessor. Dr.P.Yogesh, Senior Lecturer, DCSE, CEG Campus, Anna University, Chennai-25. Architecture of 8086. The architecture of 8086 includes Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Flags General registers Instruction byte queue Segment registers. EU & BIU.

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Introduction to 8086 Microprocessor

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Introduction to 8086 microprocessor

Introduction to 8086 Microprocessor

Dr.P.Yogesh,

Senior Lecturer,

DCSE, CEG Campus,

Anna University, Chennai-25.


Architecture of 8086

Architecture of 8086

  • The architecture of 8086 includes

    • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

    • Flags

    • General registers

    • Instruction byte queue

    • Segment registers


Eu biu

EU & BIU

  • The 8086 CPU logic has been partitioned into two functional units namely Bus Interface Unit (BIU) and Execution Unit (EU)

  • The major reason for this separation is to increase the processing speed of the processor

  • The BIU has to interact with memory and input and output devices in fetching the instructions and data required by the EU

  • EU is responsible for executing the instructions of the programs and to carry out the required processing


Eu biu1

EU & BIU


Architecture diagram

Architecture Diagram


Execution unit

Execution Unit

  • The Execution Unit (EU) has

    • Control unit

    • Instruction decoder

    • Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU)

    • General registers

    • Flag register

    • Pointers

    • Index registers


Execution unit1

Execution Unit

  • Control unit is responsible for the co-ordination of all other units of the processor

  • ALU performs various arithmetic and logical operations over the data

  • The instruction decoder translates the instructions fetched from the memory into a series of actions that are carried out by the EU


Execution unit registers

Execution Unit - Registers

  • General registers are used for temporary storage and manipulation of data and instructions

  • Accumulator register consists of two 8-bit registers AL and AH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register AX

  • Accumulator can be used for I/O operations and string manipulation


Execution unit registers1

Execution Unit - Registers

  • Base register consists of two 8-bit registers BL and BH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register BX

  • BX register usually contains a data pointer used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing

  • Count register consists of two 8-bit registers CL and CH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register CX

  • Count register can be used as a counter in string manipulation and shift/rotate instructions


Execution unit registers2

Execution Unit - Registers

  • Data register consists of two 8-bit registers DL and DH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register DX

  • Data register can be used as a port number in I/O operations

  • In integer 32-bit multiply and divide instruction the DX register contains high-order word of the initial or resulting number


Execution unit registers3

Execution Unit - Registers


Execution unit flags

Execution Unit - Flags


Execution unit flags1

Execution Unit - Flags

  • Overflow Flag (OF) - set if the result is too large positive number, or is too small negative number to fit into destination operand

  • Direction Flag (DF) - if set then string manipulation instructions will auto-decrement index registers. If cleared then the index registers will be auto-incremented

  • Interrupt-enable Flag (IF) - setting this bit enables maskable interrupts

  • Single-step Flag (TF) - if set then single-step interrupt will occur after the next instruction


Execution unit flags2

Execution Unit - Flags

  • Sign Flag (SF) - set if the most significant bit of the result is set.

  • Zero Flag (ZF) - set if the result is zero.

  • Auxiliary carry Flag (AF) - set if there was a carry from or borrow to bits 0-3 in the AL register.

  • Parity Flag (PF) - set if parity (the number of "1" bits) in the low-order byte of the result is even.

  • Carry Flag (CF) - set if there was a carry from or borrow to the most significant bit during last result calculation


Execution unit flags3

Execution Unit - Flags


Execution unit pointers

Execution Unit - Pointers

  • Stack Pointer (SP) is a 16-bit register pointing to program stack

  • Base Pointer (BP) is a 16-bit register pointing to data in stack segment. BP register is usually used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing.

  • Source Index (SI) is a 16-bit register. SI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a source data addresses in string manipulation instructions.

  • Destination Index (DI) is a 16-bit register. DI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a destination data addresses in string manipulation instructions.


Execution unit pointers1

Execution Unit - Pointers


Bus interface unit

Bus Interface Unit

  • The BIU has

    • Instruction stream byte queue

    • A set of segment registers

    • Instruction pointer


Biu instruction byte queue

BIU – Instruction Byte Queue

  • 8086 instructions vary from 1 to 6 bytes

  • Therefore fetch and execution are taking place concurrently in order to improve the performance of the microprocessor

  • The BIU feeds the instruction stream to the execution unit through a 6 byte prefetch queue

  • This prefetch queue can be considered as a form of loosely coupled pipelining


Biu instruction byte queue1

BIU – Instruction Byte Queue

  • Execution and decoding of certain instructions do not require the use of buses

  • While such instructions are executed, the BIU fetches up to six instruction bytes for the following instructions (the subsequent instructions)

  • The BIU store these prefetched bytes in a first-in-first out register by name instruction byte queue

  • When the EU is ready for its next instruction, it simply reads the instruction byte(s) for the instruction from the queue in BIU


Segment offset notation

Segment: Offset Notation

  • The total addressable memory size is 1MB

  • Most of the processor instructions use 16-bit pointers the processor can effectively address only 64 KB of memory

  • To access memory outside of 64 KB the CPU uses special segment registers to specify where the code, stack and data 64 KB segments are positioned within 1 MB of memory


Segment offset notation1

Segment: Offset Notation

  • A simple scheme would be to order the bytes in a serial fashion and number them from 0 (or 1) to the end of memory

  • The scheme used in the 8086 is called segmentation

  • Every address has two parts, a SEGMENT and an OFFSET (Segmnet:Offset )

  • The segment indicates the starting of a 64 kilobyte portion of memory, in multiples of 16

  • The offset indicates the position within the 64k portion

  • Absolute address = (segment * 16) + offset


Segment registers

Segment Registers

  • The memory of 8086 is divided into 4 segments namely

    • Code segment (program memory)

    • Data segment (data memory)

    • Stack memory (stack segment)

    • Extra memory (extra segment)


Different areas in memory

Different Areas in Memory

  • Program memory – Program can be located anywhere in memory

  • Data memory – The processor can access data in any one out of 4 available segments

  • Stack memory – A stack is a section of the memory set aside to store addresses and data while a subprogram executes

  • Extra segment – This segment is also similar to data memory where additional data may be stored and maintained


Segment registers1

Segment Registers

  • Code Segment (CS) register is a 16-bit register containing address of 64 KB segment with processor instructions

  • The processor uses CS segment for all accesses to instructions referenced by instruction pointer (IP) register

  • Stack Segment (SS) register is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program stack

  • By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by the stack pointer (SP) and base pointer (BP) registers is located in the stack segment


Segment registers2

Segment Registers

  • Data Segment (DS) register is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program data

  • By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by general registers (AX, BX, CX, DX) and index register (SI, DI) is located in the data segment

  • Extra Segment (ES) register is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment, usually with program data

  • By default, the processor assumes that the DI register references the ES segment in string manipulation instructions


Segment registers3

Segment Registers


Pin diagram

Pin Diagram


Addressing modes

Addressing Modes

  • Implied Addressing – The data value/data address is implicitly associated with the instruction

  • Register Addressing – The data is specified by referring the register or the register pair in which the data is present

  • Immediate Addressing – The data itself is provided in the instruction

  • Direct Addressing – The instruction operand specifies the memory address where data is located


Addressing modes1

Addressing Modes

  • Register indirect addressing – The instruction specifies a register containing an address, where data is located

  • Based - 8-bit or 16-bit instruction operand is added to the contents of a base register (BX or BP), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides

  • Indexed - 8-bit or 16-bit instruction operand is added to the contents of an index register (SI or DI), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides


Addressing modes2

Addressing Modes

  • Based Indexed - the contents of a base register (BX or BP) is added to the contents of an index register (SI or DI), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides

  • Based Indexed with displacement - 8-bit or 16-bit instruction operand is added to the contents of a base register (BX or BP) and index register (SI or DI), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides


Data transfer instructions

Data Transfer Instructions


Data transfer instructions1

Data Transfer Instructions


Arithmetic instructions

Arithmetic Instructions


Arithmetic instructions1

Arithmetic Instructions


Number representation

Number Representation


Logical instructions

Logical Instructions


String instructions

String Instructions


Program transfer instructions

Program Transfer Instructions


Program transfer instructions1

Program Transfer Instructions


Processor control instructions

Processor Control Instructions


Assembler directives

Assembler Directives

  • Assembler directives give instruction to the assembler where as other instructions discussed in the above section give instruction to the 8086 microprocessor

  • Assembler directives are specific for a particular assembler

  • However all the popular assemblers like the Intel 8086 macro assembler, the turbo assembler and the IBM macro assembler use common assembler directives


Important directives

Important Directives

  • The ASSUME directive tell the assembler the name of the logical segment it should use for a specified segment

  • The DB directive is used to declare a byte-type variable or to set aside one or more storage locations of type byte in memory (Define Byte)

  • The DD directive is used to declare a variable of type doubleword or to reserve memory locations which can be accessed as type doubleword (Define Doubleword)

  • The DQ directive is used to tell the assembler to declare a variable 4 words in length or to reverse 4 words of storage in memory (Define Quadword)


Important directives1

Important Directives

  • The ENDS directive is used with the name of a segment to indicate the end of that logical segment

  • The EQU is used to give a name to some value or symbol


Assembly language program

Assembly Language Program

  • Writing assembly language programs for 8086 is slightly different from that of writing assembly language programs for 8085

  • In addition to the instructions that are meant for solving the problem, some additional instructions are required to complete the programs

  • The purpose of these additional programs is to initialize various parts of the system, such as segment registers, flags and programmable port devices

  • Some of the instructions are to handle the stack of the 8086 based system


Assembly language program1

Assembly Language Program

  • Another purpose of these additional instructions is to handle the programmable peripheral devices such as ports, timers and controllers

  • The programmable peripheral interfaces should be assigned suitable control words to make them to function in the way as we expect

  • The best way to approach the initialization task is to make a checklist of all the registers, programmable devices and flags in the system we are working on


Assembly language program2

Assembly Language Program

  • An 8086 assembly language program has five columns namely

    • Address

    • Data or code

    • Labels

    • Mmnemonics

    • Operands

    • Comments


Assembly language program3

Assembly Language Program

  • The address column is used for the address or the offset of a code byte or a data byte

  • The actual code bytes or data bytes are put in the data or code column

  • A label is a name which represents an address referred to in a jump or call instruction

  • Labels are put in the labels column


Assembly language program4

Assembly Language Program

  • The operands column contains the registers, memory locations or data acted upon by the instructions

  • A comments column gives space to describe the function of the instruction for future reference


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