Chapter 11 Education In The 1980’s: Reagan, Bush, and Neoconservative Reform. GILED 703 History of American Education Gorse – Koch- Piper – Glenn - Shields. Introduction. The 1980’s were important in moving American education to a new reform agenda that involved everyone including:
History of American Education
Gorse – Koch- Piper – Glenn - Shields
The 1980’s were important in moving American education to a new reform agenda that involved everyone including:
“A Return To The Basics”
Major role in effecting establishment of the Department of Education in 1979
- focus the nation’s attention on the need for educational reform
- use the federal government to encourage reform initiatives by state and local school districts
- encourage specific educational initiatives such as merit review and pay for teachers and the restoration of discipline, patriotism, and traditional school values.
- reduce federal expenditures for education
Secretary of Education
Terrel Bell appointed the National Commission on Excellence in Education in 1981. Chaired by David L. Gardner, president of the University of California.
Commission was to review the quality of education in the county’s schools & colleges.
In 1983, the Commission on Excellence issued its report, A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform.
- School Curriculum
- Teacher Education ( science & math)
- Measures to Access Teacher Competency
- Alternatives to the Conventional Teacher Salary
- Businesses and Schools to Develop Educational Partnerships
- Report of the Educational Commission of the States National Task Force on Education for Economic Growth.
- Chaired by Governor James Hunt of North Carolina
- Examined American education in relationship to economic productivity
The commission sought to devise strategies for improving the quality of high school graduates.
Areas that would aid in national economic growth & productivity.
Ernest L. Boyer’s High School: A Report on Secondary Education in America.
(The Carnegie Foundation)
Coleman & Selby’s Educating Americans for the 21st Century.
Theodore Sizer’s A Study of High Schools.
- Lower academic standards
- Increased discipline problems
- Lower student academic performance
- Secondary school curriculum was diluted and lacked academic vigor
- Low achievement in math and science
By 1988, forty-six states required some form of teacher competency testing.
Came about by national reports done in the 1980’s. A Nation at Risk was one of those reports.
- federal vouchers available to parents so that their children could attend public or private school of choice
- voluntary testing program in key subjects that would constitute a national curriculum
- encourage alternative patterns of teacher and school administrator certification
By the Year 2000:
- All American children will enter school ready to learn
- High school graduation rate will reach at least 90%
- All students will demonstrate competency in English, math, science, and history.
- U.S. students will rank # 1 in the world in math and science.
- Every school in U.S. will be drug and violence free.
- Every American adult will be literate and posses the knowledge and skills need for citizenship.
Persian Gulf War
Communist Soviet system break-down
Do to reforms, education in the 1980’s developed into areas where:
- the principal took a strong position as an academic leader
- the teachers formed a cooperative body of educators who worked together to deliver academic instruction efficiently
- the school had clearly announced goals and expectations of its students.
List of Ten Brief “Facts” From Chapter 11
1. Jimmy Carter
2. Ronald Reagan
3. George Bush
4. Basic Education
5. Terrel Bell
6. Nation at Risk
7. Action of Excellence
8. A Study of High Schools
9. AIDS Education
10. National Goals For Education
List of Nine Important Sources Used
1. American Education 1945-2000 ( A History & Commentary)
2. High School: A Report on Secondary Education in America
3. US News and World Report ( August 1988 )
6. New York Times Magazine ( Oct. 23, 1980)
9. Biography of Ronald Reagan
The Three Important Questions To Investigate
1. Why did Ronald Reagan change his mind on education
when he took office?
2. Why did Reagan appoint Terrel Bell Secretary of Education in 1981?
3. Why was A Nation At Risk an important education report during the 1980’s?