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The Americas after WWII. Argentina and Canada. IB Objectives. Spread of Cold War outside Europe Political developments in the Americas after the Second World War 1945-79. IB Paper 3 Sample Questions.

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The Americas after WWII

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The americas after wwii

The Americas after WWII

Argentina and Canada

Ib objectives

IB Objectives

  • Spread of Cold War outside Europe

  • Political developments in the Americas after the Second World War 1945-79

Ib paper 3 sample questions

IB Paper 3 Sample Questions

  • Examine the foreign policy of either Canada or one Latin American country between 1945 and 1979.

  • Analyse the political or social developments in Canada between 1960 and 1981.

  • To what extent did either Canada or one Latin American country develop a foreign policy independent of the United States after 1945?

Sample questions

Sample Questions

  • In what ways, and with what results, did the Cold War influence relations between either Latin America or Canada with the United States in the period 1945 to 1957?

Key terms

Key Terms

  • Cordobazo

  • The Dirty War

  • The Falkland Islands War

  • General Leopoldo Galtieri

  • John Diefenbaker

  • North American Air Defense Agreement (NORAD)

Lecture outline

Lecture Outline

I. Argentina after Peron

A. Military rule

B. The Return of Peron

C. the Dirty War

D. the Falklands War

E. Argentina 1983-1995

II. Canada

A. Canada’s economy

B. Canada and the Cold War

C. The Growth of Quebec Nationalism

D. Society during the last half of the 20th century

Argentina after peron

Argentina after Peron

  • The Argentine military ran the country from 1955-1958.

  • 1958 the military allowed elections to be held and Aruro Frondizi was elected president.

  • Frondizi was arrested by the military in March 1963 after his party won 10 governorships and control of the majority of the country’s provisional legislatures. The military returned to power.

Argentina after peron1

Argentina after Peron

  • 1963 Arturo Illia was elected president. He attempted to conciliate the Peronists by legalizing their party.

  • The Peronists won that year’s congressional elections.

  • In June 1966 the military overthrew Illia.

  • General Juan Carolos Ongania became president in 1966.



  • Inflation fell from 30% per annum to 10%.



  • May 1969 students and workers in Cordoba rioted.

  • Took 2 days for the army to restore order.

  • It encouraged many Marxist and Peronist youths to believe that violent direct action was the only method that could overthrow the right-wing military that controlled Argentina.

  • June 1970 a new military junta took over.

Return of peron

Return of Peron

  • The military allowed Peron to return in 1973.

  • September 1973 Peron was elected president of Argentina and his wife, Isabel, was elected v.p. He won 62% of the vote.

  • Peron died on July 1, 1974 and Isabel became president.

The dirty war

The Dirty War

  • Montoneros and the Revolutionary Army of the People were the main forces in the countryside.

  • In November 1974 the military convinced Isabel to declare a state of emergency which allowed them to go after the guerillas with little regard for civil liberties.

The dirty war1

The Dirty War

  • The military and Argentine Anticommunist Alliance created death squads which detained, tortured, and murdered anyone they suspected of subversion.

  • 12,000-30,000 people “disappeared” between 1974 and 1984.

  • 1976 the military overthrew Isabel.

The falklands war

The Falklands War

  • December 1979 General Leopoldo Galtieri became president.

  • April 2, 1982 Argentine forces easily occupied the Falklands along with the South Sandwich and the South Georgian Islands.

  • The US sided with Britain.

  • It lasted 72 days and was a total defeat for Argentina.

Argentina 1983 1995

Argentina 1983-1995

  • December 1983 Raul Alfonso of the Radical Party was elected president.

  • 1989 the Peronists regained control when Carlos Menem became president. He was reelected in 1995.

  • Only 14% of the population has a high school education and only 4% have graduated from college.

Canada s postwar boom

Canada’s postwar boom

  • 30% increase in the birth rate and a more than 50% decline in the infant mortality rate

  • Over 1,200,000 immigrant came to Canada during the 1950s. 95% from Europe. 1/3 from the British Isles.

  • By the 1960s foreign investors controlled nearly 75% of Canada’s oil industry and 50% of manufacturing and mining.

  • In 1951 the federal government instituted an old-age pension plan in which all citizens would receive $40 a month at age 70.

Canada s welfare state

Canada’s Welfare State

  • 1957 Parliament took its first step forward universal health care when it passed the Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Service Act.

  • By 1961 all provinces had federal cost-sharing hospital insurance programs.

  • In 1968 Parliament passed legislation that expanded federal cost-sharing to all medical services.

  • In 1972 all provincial plans had been expanded to include medical services outside of hospitals.

Political reforms

Political Reforms

  • 1958 Diefenbaker elected Prime Minister.

  • 1960 Parliament passed a Canadian Bill of Rights

Canada and the cold war

Canada and the Cold War

  • 1957 NORAD stated that Canada and the US would cooperate on repealing any air attack on North America.

  • After 1959 Canada was dependent upon the US for high-technology military equipment.

  • During the Cuban Missile Crisis, the US used NORAD to order Diefenbaker to put Canadian forces on high alert.

Canada s economy

Canada’s Economy

  • Unemployment hit 11% in 1961

  • In 1963 the Liberal Party under Lester Pearson won the Parliamentary elections.

  • After his victory Pearson put the nuclear tips on the cruise missiles, and Canada would have US nuclear weapons in its territory until 1984.

The growth of quebec nationalism

The Growth of Quebec Nationalism

  • 1969 Official Languages Act passed.

  • 1960 a group of Liberals led by Jean Lesage took control of Quebec.

  • 1963 a group of radical separatists created the Front de Liberation du Quebec (FLQ).

  • 1998 Canadian Supreme Court ruled that a province could not separate from Canada without Parliament’s permission.

Canadian society in the late 20 th century

Canadian Society in the late 20th century

  • Signed NAFTA in 1993. 70% of Canadian imports and 80% of its exports were with the US before the treaty; the treaty increased those number to 76% and 81% respectively in 1997.

  • Participated in the Persian Gulf War of 1990 by sending 3 warships and a squadron of jet fighters.

  • In 2003 the Canadian military consisted of 61,000 personnel.

Canadian society in the 20 th century

Canadian Society in the 20th century

  • In 1993 Prime Minister Brian Mulroney resigned and Defense Minister Kim Campbell took over. She was the first woman ever to lead a North American country.

  • Canada did not support the US 2003 invasion of Iraq but did pledge $100 million in financial aid for the post-war reconstruction effort.

Canada in the 20 th century

Canada in the 20th Century

  • 4% of Canadians claim Native American ancestry.

  • In 1982, Native peoples formed the Assembly of First Nations as an organization to lobby for Native American rights.

  • April 1, 1999 Canada created the new self-governing territory of Nunavut out of the Northwestern Territories.

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