Water and weather
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Water and Weather. Chapter Seven: Oceans. 7.1 Introduction to Oceans 7.2 Waves 7.3 Shallow Marine Environments 7.4 The Ocean Floor. 7.3 Shallow marine environment. A beach is an area of coastal sand between the low tide line and the line of permanent vegetation.

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Water and weather

Water and Weather


Chapter seven oceans

Chapter Seven: Oceans

  • 7.1 Introduction to Oceans

  • 7.2 Waves

  • 7.3 Shallow Marine Environments

  • 7.4 The Ocean Floor


7 3 shallow marine environment

7.3 Shallow marine environment

  • A beachis an area of coastal sand between the low tide line and the line of permanent vegetation.

  • The backshoreis the part of the beach above the high tide line which is only submerged during storms.

  • The foreshoreof a beach lies between the high and low tide lines.


7 3 shallow marine environments

7.3 Shallow marine environments

  • Sea level is the average ocean height between the high and low tide levels.


7 3 sandy beaches and tidal flats

7.3 Sandy beaches and tidal flats

  • Sand is the most obvious feature of a beach.

  • The light-colored, rounded grains slip easily through your hands.


7 3 sandy beaches and tidal flats1

7.3 Sandy beaches and tidal flats

  • Tidal flats commonly have sandy areas, but most of a tidal flat is dark, sticky mud.


7 3 sandy beaches and tidal flats2

7.3 Sandy beaches and tidal flats

  • Tidal flats and beaches are both covered by sediment.

  • Streams and rivers carry the sediment down from the mountains and other high places.


7 3 sandy beaches and tidal flats3

7.3 Sandy beaches and tidal flats

  • Waves are the key difference between tidal flats and beaches.

  • Beaches are affected by strong wave action.

  • Tidal flats are not.

  • Waves change the size of sediment particles.

Scientists use special cameras to measure particles and wave action.


7 3 waves and sand

7.3 Waves and sand

  • The largest particles of sediment are heavy enough to settle to the ocean floor.

  • The smallest particles and broken grains are carried out to sea with the waves and ocean currents.


7 3 beaches in winter and summer

7.3 Beaches in winter and summer

  • Gentle summer waves carry sand from deeper water onto the beaches.

  • The stronger winter waves carry the sand back to deeper water.


7 3 moving sand

7.3 Moving sand

  • Beaches never completely wear away because rivers and streams bring new sand from the mountains to the beaches.

  • This sand doesn’t stay in one location.

  • In some places the shore resists wearing away.


7 3 moving sand1

7.3 Moving sand

  • A coastis the boundary between land and a body of water like the ocean.

  • This movement of sand along a coast is called longshore drift.


7 3 how does longshore drift work

7.3 How does longshore drift work?

  • Longshore drift occurs because waves approach the beach at an angle.


7 3 how does longshore drift work1

7.3 How does longshore drift work?

  • The waves come in at one direction (the upwash) and then leave the beach at a different angle (the backwash).


7 3 barriers and breakwaters

7.3 Barriers and breakwaters

  • A breakwater is a barrier to longshore drift that protects harbors.

  • Excess sand builds up near a breakwater and must be removed regularly.


7 3 the continental shelf

7.3 The continental shelf

  • Sand drifting down the steep face of a continental shelf cuts into the shelf just like streams cut into valleys.


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