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Water and Weather. Chapter Seven: Oceans. 7.1 Introduction to Oceans 7.2 Waves 7.3 Shallow Marine Environments 7.4 The Ocean Floor. 7.3 Shallow marine environment. A beach is an area of coastal sand between the low tide line and the line of permanent vegetation.

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chapter seven oceans
Chapter Seven: Oceans
  • 7.1 Introduction to Oceans
  • 7.2 Waves
  • 7.3 Shallow Marine Environments
  • 7.4 The Ocean Floor
7 3 shallow marine environment
7.3 Shallow marine environment
  • A beachis an area of coastal sand between the low tide line and the line of permanent vegetation.
  • The backshoreis the part of the beach above the high tide line which is only submerged during storms.
  • The foreshoreof a beach lies between the high and low tide lines.
7 3 shallow marine environments
7.3 Shallow marine environments
  • Sea level is the average ocean height between the high and low tide levels.
7 3 sandy beaches and tidal flats
7.3 Sandy beaches and tidal flats
  • Sand is the most obvious feature of a beach.
  • The light-colored, rounded grains slip easily through your hands.
7 3 sandy beaches and tidal flats1
7.3 Sandy beaches and tidal flats
  • Tidal flats commonly have sandy areas, but most of a tidal flat is dark, sticky mud.
7 3 sandy beaches and tidal flats2
7.3 Sandy beaches and tidal flats
  • Tidal flats and beaches are both covered by sediment.
  • Streams and rivers carry the sediment down from the mountains and other high places.
7 3 sandy beaches and tidal flats3
7.3 Sandy beaches and tidal flats
  • Waves are the key difference between tidal flats and beaches.
  • Beaches are affected by strong wave action.
  • Tidal flats are not.
  • Waves change the size of sediment particles.

Scientists use special cameras to measure particles and wave action.

7 3 waves and sand
7.3 Waves and sand
  • The largest particles of sediment are heavy enough to settle to the ocean floor.
  • The smallest particles and broken grains are carried out to sea with the waves and ocean currents.
7 3 beaches in winter and summer
7.3 Beaches in winter and summer
  • Gentle summer waves carry sand from deeper water onto the beaches.
  • The stronger winter waves carry the sand back to deeper water.
7 3 moving sand
7.3 Moving sand
  • Beaches never completely wear away because rivers and streams bring new sand from the mountains to the beaches.
  • This sand doesn’t stay in one location.
  • In some places the shore resists wearing away.
7 3 moving sand1
7.3 Moving sand
  • A coastis the boundary between land and a body of water like the ocean.
  • This movement of sand along a coast is called longshore drift.
7 3 how does longshore drift work
7.3 How does longshore drift work?
  • Longshore drift occurs because waves approach the beach at an angle.
7 3 how does longshore drift work1
7.3 How does longshore drift work?
  • The waves come in at one direction (the upwash) and then leave the beach at a different angle (the backwash).
7 3 barriers and breakwaters
7.3 Barriers and breakwaters
  • A breakwater is a barrier to longshore drift that protects harbors.
  • Excess sand builds up near a breakwater and must be removed regularly.
7 3 the continental shelf
7.3 The continental shelf
  • Sand drifting down the steep face of a continental shelf cuts into the shelf just like streams cut into valleys.
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