Logic as tool of philosophy
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Logic: as tool of Philosophy. Science of correct reasoning Nature of man: correct thinking To examine our ability to adapt: in difficult or controversial cases. Organizing ideas/arguments: expressing them with more accuracy drawing legitimate conclusions. FORMAL & MATERIAL LOGIC.

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Logic: as tool of Philosophy

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Logic as tool of philosophy

Logic: as tool of Philosophy

  • Science of correct reasoning

    • Nature of man: correct thinking

    • To examine our ability to adapt:

      • in difficult or controversial cases.

    • Organizing ideas/arguments:

      • expressing them with more accuracy

      • drawing legitimate conclusions.


Formal material logic

FORMAL & MATERIAL LOGIC

  • FORMAL LOGIC

    • CORRECTNESS RATHER THAN THE TRUTH

      • Has to do with correctness or sequence or the following of rules.

    • Not on the material content of the argument.

    • To reason correctly is not necessarily the same as to reason truthfully.


Logic as tool of philosophy

  • E.g. Formal Logic:

    Practice makes perfect

    Nobody is perfect

    Why practice?


Logic as tool of philosophy

  • Pagsumama ka samatalino, tatalino ka rin!

  • Pagsumama ka saadik, magigingadik ka rin!

  • Try mo sumamasa AKIN…

  • Bakamaging AKIN ka rin!


Logic as tool of philosophy

  • MATERIAL LOGIC

    • Concerned with the truth

    • thought-contents is in correspondence with reality

      • Connection: mind & real order


Logic as tool of philosophy

  • E.g. Material Logic

    The human soul is endowed with intellect and will;

    But, what is endowed with intellect and will is spiritual;

    Ergo, the human soul is spiritual.


Logic as tool of philosophy

  • Potential recruits of Mass Media Industry are students who completed their course in Communication.

  • I’ve successfully completed my course in Communication last March of 2010.

  • I am therefore qualified to be a recruit of the Mass Media Industry.


Arguments

Arguments

  • Nature of an argument

    • Argument is an inferential thinking that is composed of conclusion and premise(assertion/statement) from which the conclusion is inferred.

    • Inferential: the process of reasoning from a premise to a conclusion; in which the conclusion is drawn from evidential reasoning.


Logic as tool of philosophy

  • E.g.

    • Premise 1: anything that moves is moved by another;

    • Premise 2: but, the ball moves

    • Conclusion: therefore, the ball is moved by another.


Inferential

INFERENTIAL?

PREMISES

WHAT IS CLAIMED TO FOLLOW FROM THE EVIDENCE

CLAIMED EVIDENCE

CONCLUSION


Valid invalid arguments

VALID & INVALID ARGUMENTS

  • Valid: (T-T) INFERENTIAL

    • The conclusion is true because of the true premises.

    • It is impossible that the premises of an argument are true and the conclusion false


Valid arguments

VALID ARGUMENTS

E.g.

1.  All chickboys have multiple partners/girlfriends. 

2.  Ysmael & Iggy Boy have 10 girlfriends each at the same time. 

__________________________

3.  Therefore, Ysmael & Iggy Boy are both chickboys.


Valid arguments1

VALID ARGUMENTS

1.  All people who are born in the United States are U.S. citizens. 

2.  Tutoy was born in the United States. 

____________________

3.  Therefore, Tutoy is a U.S. citizen. 


Valid arguments2

VALID ARGUMENTS

1.  All mammals have kidneys.

2.  Plants do not have kidneys.

____________________

3.  Therefore, plants are not mammals. 


Invalid arguments presumptuous

INVALID ARGUMENTS (PRESUMPTUOUS)

  • T-F

  • The premises are true and the conclusion is false.

    • fallacy of affirming the consequent.

  • “Inductive: assuming”

    • “not necessarily… probably!”

  • (+) If it rains, then the ground gets wet.

  • (+) But, the ground is wet;

  • (-) Therefore, it rained.


Invalid arguments

INVALID ARGUMENTS

1.  If Arn-Arn is in Hollywood, then he is in California.

2.  Arn-Arn is in California.

______________________

3. Therefore, Arn-Arn is in Hollywood. 


Invalid arguments1

INVALID ARGUMENTS

1.  Horses are not reptiles.

2.  Mr. Diego is not a reptile.

_________________

3.  Therefore, Mr. Diego is a horse. 


Logic as tool of philosophy

  • “masarapmagmahal,

  • nagmamahalako, samakatuwid…

  • masarapako!”

  • God is love,

  • but love is blind.

  • Therefore, God is blind!”


Valid yet absurd

VALID YET ABSURD

  • F-F

  • The premises are false (NOT MATERIAL) and it follows that the conclusion is false(NOT MATERIAL!)

  • It is valid because: the way in which the premises and conclusion are structured is “FORMALLY CORRECT!”

  • ALL TREES ARE WOMEN

  • BUT, ALL MEN ARE TREES

  • THEREFORE, ALL WOMEN ARE MEN


Valid unsound

VALID: UNSOUND

  • One premise: false/true

  • Conclusion: true (accidental)

  • E.g.

  • (+) All dogs are animal;

  • (-) But, all cats are dogs;

  • (+) Therefore, all cats are animals.


Valid arguments3

VALID ARGUMENTS


Invalid arguments2

INVALID ARGUMENTS


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