Logic as tool of philosophy
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Logic: as tool of Philosophy. Science of correct reasoning Nature of man: correct thinking To examine our ability to adapt: in difficult or controversial cases. Organizing ideas/arguments: expressing them with more accuracy drawing legitimate conclusions. FORMAL & MATERIAL LOGIC.

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Logic as tool of philosophy
Logic: as tool of Philosophy

  • Science of correct reasoning

    • Nature of man: correct thinking

    • To examine our ability to adapt:

      • in difficult or controversial cases.

    • Organizing ideas/arguments:

      • expressing them with more accuracy

      • drawing legitimate conclusions.


Formal material logic
FORMAL & MATERIAL LOGIC

  • FORMAL LOGIC

    • CORRECTNESS RATHER THAN THE TRUTH

      • Has to do with correctness or sequence or the following of rules.

    • Not on the material content of the argument.

    • To reason correctly is not necessarily the same as to reason truthfully.



  • Pagsumama ka samatalino, tatalino ka rin!

  • Pagsumama ka saadik, magigingadik ka rin!

  • Try mo sumamasa AKIN…

  • Bakamaging AKIN ka rin!


  • MATERIAL LOGIC

    • Concerned with the truth

    • thought-contents is in correspondence with reality

      • Connection: mind & real order


  • E.g. Material Logic

    The human soul is endowed with intellect and will;

    But, what is endowed with intellect and will is spiritual;

    Ergo, the human soul is spiritual.



Arguments
Arguments completed their course in Communication.

  • Nature of an argument

    • Argument is an inferential thinking that is composed of conclusion and premise(assertion/statement) from which the conclusion is inferred.

    • Inferential: the process of reasoning from a premise to a conclusion; in which the conclusion is drawn from evidential reasoning.


  • E.g. completed their course in Communication.

    • Premise 1: anything that moves is moved by another;

    • Premise 2: but, the ball moves

    • Conclusion: therefore, the ball is moved by another.


Inferential
INFERENTIAL? completed their course in Communication.

PREMISES

WHAT IS CLAIMED TO FOLLOW FROM THE EVIDENCE

CLAIMED EVIDENCE

CONCLUSION


Valid invalid arguments
VALID & INVALID ARGUMENTS completed their course in Communication.

  • Valid: (T-T) INFERENTIAL

    • The conclusion is true because of the true premises.

    • It is impossible that the premises of an argument are true and the conclusion false


Valid arguments
VALID ARGUMENTS completed their course in Communication.

E.g.

1.  All chickboys have multiple partners/girlfriends. 

2.  Ysmael & Iggy Boy have 10 girlfriends each at the same time. 

__________________________

3.  Therefore, Ysmael & Iggy Boy are both chickboys.


Valid arguments1
VALID ARGUMENTS completed their course in Communication.

1.  All people who are born in the United States are U.S. citizens. 

2.  Tutoy was born in the United States. 

____________________

3.  Therefore, Tutoy is a U.S. citizen. 


Valid arguments2
VALID ARGUMENTS completed their course in Communication.

1.  All mammals have kidneys.

2.  Plants do not have kidneys.

____________________

3.  Therefore, plants are not mammals. 


Invalid arguments presumptuous
INVALID ARGUMENTS completed their course in Communication.(PRESUMPTUOUS)

  • T-F

  • The premises are true and the conclusion is false.

    • fallacy of affirming the consequent.

  • “Inductive: assuming”

    • “not necessarily… probably!”

  • (+) If it rains, then the ground gets wet.

  • (+) But, the ground is wet;

  • (-) Therefore, it rained.


Invalid arguments
INVALID ARGUMENTS completed their course in Communication.

1.  If Arn-Arn is in Hollywood, then he is in California.

2.  Arn-Arn is in California.

______________________

3. Therefore, Arn-Arn is in Hollywood. 


Invalid arguments1
INVALID ARGUMENTS completed their course in Communication.

1.  Horses are not reptiles.

2.  Mr. Diego is not a reptile.

_________________

3.  Therefore, Mr. Diego is a horse. 


  • completed their course in Communication.masarapmagmahal,

  • nagmamahalako, samakatuwid…

  • masarapako!”

  • God is love,

  • but love is blind.

  • Therefore, God is blind!”


Valid yet absurd
VALID YET ABSURD completed their course in Communication.

  • F-F

  • The premises are false (NOT MATERIAL) and it follows that the conclusion is false(NOT MATERIAL!)

  • It is valid because: the way in which the premises and conclusion are structured is “FORMALLY CORRECT!”

  • ALL TREES ARE WOMEN

  • BUT, ALL MEN ARE TREES

  • THEREFORE, ALL WOMEN ARE MEN


Valid unsound
VALID: UNSOUND completed their course in Communication.

  • One premise: false/true

  • Conclusion: true (accidental)

  • E.g.

  • (+) All dogs are animal;

  • (-) But, all cats are dogs;

  • (+) Therefore, all cats are animals.


Valid arguments3
VALID ARGUMENTS completed their course in Communication.


Invalid arguments2
INVALID ARGUMENTS completed their course in Communication.


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