Historical perspectives in special education
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Historical Perspectives in Special Education. A brief review. Ancient Views (BC). Seriously affected seldom survived birth Mildly disabled survived and contributed Belief in supernatural led to (2) different views: Demons; therefore kill them Unique; therefore revere and honor

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Historical Perspectives in Special Education

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Historical perspectives in special education

Historical Perspectives in Special Education

A brief review


Ancient views bc

Ancient Views (BC)

  • Seriously affected seldom survived birth

  • Mildly disabled survived and contributed

  • Belief in supernatural led to (2) different views:

  • Demons; therefore kill them

  • Unique; therefore revere and honor

  • Regardless, those with disabilities were isolated


An ethical dilemma

An Ethical Dilemma

  • Over 400,000 babies are born in the US premature

  • They are at risk for life long disabilities

  • Often policy to resuscitate all babies weighing 1 lb or more


Greek and roman

Greek and Roman

  • Early: Away from supernatural to natural causes

  • Holistic interventions such as:

  • Diet

  • Exercise

  • Natural herbs etc

  • Mind, body, spirit


Greek and roman con t

Greek and Roman (con’t)

  • Later in this period:

  • Need for military superiority

  • Therefore, needed society free of “defectives”

  • Returned to previous views of disability

  • Called Era of Extermination

  • Individual is what he is, now and forever


Greek roman con t

Greek & Roman(con’t)

  • Consequences of Philosophy:

  • Punishment: Chaining

  • Left on hills to die

  • Thrown off cliffs

  • Locked away

  • Drown

  • Father had right to terminate child’s life


Historical perspectives in special education

Greek and Roman treatment of the disabled

Thrown off cliffs

Locked away

Chained


Middle ages

Middle Ages

  • Rigid caste system

  • Era of Ridicule

  • Those with disabilities were:

  • Used as servants or fools

  • Some were still put to death

  • Dwarfs were used as clowns

  • Overall, ridiculed for deformities and behavior


Historical perspectives in special education

Middle Ages

Judy

Becky


Renaissance

Renaissance

  • Era of Asylum

  • Catholic Church accepts those with disabilities as wards of state

  • Cared for in isolation

  • No education at first, but humane treatment

  • Belief: Once disabled, always disabled


Industrial revolution

Industrial Revolution

  • Era of Education

  • Need for mass education, literate society, and good workers

  • Vocational Emphasis

  • Sheltered workshops emerged


Early education efforts

Early Education Efforts

  • Itard-wolf boy, multi-sensory learning

  • Sequin-training sequence

  • Montessori-individualized and discovery learning

  • These were some seeds of special education


Historical perspectives in special education

Pioneers in Special Education

Eduard Seguin

Maria Montessori

Jean-Marc

Itard


Turn of the century early 1900 s

Turn of the Century (early 1900’s)

  • Early: Biological emphasis

  • Institutional Care/medical model

  • 1900-1950’s some classes for the mentally retarded


Turn of the century con t

Turn of the Century (con’t)

  • Late: Environmental emphasis

  • Veterans-rise in litigation and legislation

  • Civil Rights movement in 50’s and 60’s


Contemporary issues

Contemporary Issues

  • Inclusion

  • Zero Reject

  • Litigation/legislation

  • Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

  • Parents as equal members

  • Collaboration between general ed and special ed


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