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10 minute Response:. Identify the Civilization that produced the work shown. What characteristics of this civilization’s style are evident in this figure? . Rubric. ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART. Mesopotamian Religion.

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10 minute Response:

Identify the Civilization that produced the work shown. What characteristics of this civilization’s style are evident in this figure?


Rubric


ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART


Mesopotamian Religion

As people gathered into more organized groups they developed and shared common organized religion.


Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters

  • The people of Mesopotamia believed that their world was controlled by gods and goddesses, demons and monsters.


Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters

  • There were hundreds of gods who were responsible for everything in the world, from rivers and trees to making bread and pottery.


Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters

  • Demons were created by the gods with human bodies and animal or bird heads. They could be either evil or good. Monsters were a mixture of animals and birds.


Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters

  • Each city was protected by its own special god or goddess and their family. Large temples were built in the centre of the city for these gods to live in. Priests looked after the gods with special rituals. There were also smaller temples throughout the city where ordinary people could make offerings.


  • At the beginning of time there were only gods and goddesses on earth. They had to work the land to grow crops to eat. This was difficult and they worked very hard.


  • Each god and goddess had a job to do. Some dug the fields and planted the crops. Others brought water to the fields in ditches which had to be kept clear of weeds.


  • The work was hard, and they were not happy. They got together to discuss what could be done to lighten their workload.


  • They went to get advice from Enki, who was wise and clever. Enki was fast asleep in his underwater house.


  • Enki suggested that he create creatures to serve them by working the land. Then the gods' and goddesses' lives would be easier.


  • The gods and goddesses thought that Enki's plan was a good solution. Enki collected clay from around his watery home and used it to make humans.


  • He breathed life into the clay figures, but he limited how long they would live. Only the gods and goddesses would live forever.


  • The humans were put to work in the fields. As servants of the gods and goddesses they had to provide them with food and drink for their tables.


  • The humans took water from the rivers and fed the dry and lifeless lands. They dug the soil and planted crops.


  • With hard work the humans brought life to the land, and the gods and goddesses, who had brought life to the humans, were happy......... for the moment...........


Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters

  • The Mesopotamian scribes compiled long lists of their gods.There were hundreds of gods who were responsible for every thing in the world, from rivers and mountains to making bread or pottery.


Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters

  • The gods were known by different names depending on whether the scribes wrote Sumerian or Akkadian.


Jericho

Title: Human Skull

Date: 6,000 – 5,500 BCE

Great Stone Tower


Çatal Höyük


Reproduction of Landscape Scene of ÇatalHöyük

Medium: wall paintingLocation: ÇatalHöyük, Turkey Date: 6,150 BCE


Chronology


REMEMBER THE TIMELINE!


SUMER (3,500 – 2,340 BCE)


CUNEIFORM


ZIGGURAT

Drawing of Anu Ziggurat & White Temple, Uruk

White Temple sanctuary

3100 BCE


WarkaHead

Inlaid with colored materials

Medium: Marble

Size: height approx. 8" (20.3 cm)

Date: c. 3300–3000 BCE

Location: Uruk (present-day Warka, Iraq)


WarkaVase

Medium: Alabaster Stone

Date: c. 2900–2600 BCELocation: Uruk (present-day Warka, Iraq)


Votive Figures

Medium: Limestone, alabaster, and gypsumSize: various sizesDate: c. 2900–2600 BCELocation: The Square

Temple, Eshnunna

(present-day

Tell Asmar,

Iraq).


Nanna (moon god) Ziggurat, Ur

Date: c. 2100–2050 BCE

Location: Present-day Muqaiyir, Iraq


The Great Lyre with bull’s head

Medium: Wood with gold, silver, lapis lazuli, bitumen, and shell, reassembled in modern wood support

Size: maximum length of lyre 55½”

Date: c. 2550–2400 BCE

Location: Royal tomb, Ur (present-day Muqaiyir, Iraq)


AKKAD (2,300 – 2,150 BCE)


Akkadianruler

Medium: Copper Alloy

Size: height 14⅜"

Date: c. 2300–2200 BCE

Location: Nineveh (present-day Kuyunjik, Iraq)


Stele of Naram-Sin

Medium: Limestone

Size: height 6'6" (1.98 m)

Date: c. 2220–2184 BCE


Votive Statue of Gudea

Medium: Diorite

Size: height 29" (73.7 cm)

Date: c. 2090 BCE

Neo-Sumerian Lagash Dynasty

Location: Girsu (present-day Telloh, Iraq)


Stele of Hammurabi

Medium: Diorite

Size: height of stele approx. 7’, height of relief 28“

Date: c. 1792–1750 BCE

Babylon

Location: Susa (present-day Shush, Iran)


Shamash

Hammurabi


Hittite (c. 1600-1200 B.C.E)


Lion Gate

Date: c. 1400 B.C.E.

Location: Boghazkoy, Turkey


ASSYRIA (1,000 – 620 BCE)


Ziggurat

Palace Complex

Kings Quarters

52‘Platform

courtyard

Reconstruction drawing of the citadel and palace complex of Sargon II

Locaion: Dur Sharrukin (Present-Day Khorsabad, Iraq). Date: C. 721–706 BCE


Lamassu

Medium: Limestone

Size: height 10'3½"

Date: 883–859 BCE

Location: Palace of Assurnasirpal II, Assyria, Kalhu

Five Legs


Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions

Medium: Alabaster

Size: height approx. 39" (99.1 cm)

Date: c. 850 BCE

Location: Palace complex of Assurnasirpal II, Kalhu


Neo-Babylonia (620 – 539 BCE)


Ishtar Gate and Throne Room Wall

Medium: Glazed brick

Size: height of gate originally 40 feet with towers rising 100 feet.

Date: c. 575 BCE


Achaemenids (Persia) (539 – 331 BCE)


Architectural Plan,Persepolis

Date: c. 518–460 BCE

Location: Iran


Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute

Medium: Limestone

Size: height 8'4"

Date: 491–486 BCE

Location: Detail of a relief from the stairway leading to the Apadana, Persepolis, Iran


Summary Response

  • Summarize some of the main themes and conceptual idea for the period.

  • Identify major figures of the period.


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