Cit 358
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CIT 358. Primary System Component. Primary System Componet. Electrostatic Discharge Motherboard Bus Slots and I/O Cards Microprocessor Type and Specifications Memory Power Supply. Electrostatic Discharge.

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CIT 358

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Cit 358

CIT 358

Primary System Component

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Primary system componet

Primary System Componet

  • Electrostatic Discharge

  • Motherboard

  • Bus Slots and I/O Cards

  • Microprocessor Type and Specifications

  • Memory

  • Power Supply

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Electrostatic discharge

Electrostatic Discharge

  • Static electricity or Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) is a common threat to computers or other electronic hardware.

  • Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is another name for static electricity, which can damage chips and destroy systemboards, even though it may not be felt or seen.

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Electrostatic discharge cont

Electrostatic Discharge (Cont.)

  • ESD can cause acatastrophic failure, destroy components, or cause an upset failure that producesunpredictable malfunctions of components, which are often difficult to detect or diagnose.

  • When working on a computer, one has to be very careful about ESD.

  • The three best protections against ESD are:

    • Ground Strap

    • Ground Mat

    • Static Shielding Bags

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1 ground strap

1. Ground Strap

  • A ground strap, sometimes called a ground bracelet or a static strap, is worn on your wrist and is grounded to a ground mat, computer case, or a ground prong of a wall outlet.

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2 ground mat

2. Ground Mat

  • A ground mat, often comes equipped with a cord to plug into the ground prong of a wall outlet. There is also a snap on the mat to which you can snap the end of your ground strap.

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3 static shielding bags

3. Static Shielding Bags

  • Static shielding bags are often used to ship new components. These bags can be saved and used to store other devices not currently installed on your PC.

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Other protection from esd

Other Protection from ESD

  • Don’t touch chips or edge connectors on boards unless absolutely necessary.

  • Don’t stack boards.

  • Don’t touch chips with magnetized screwdrivers.

  • Don’t put cards on top of or next to the monitor.

  • Don’t touch the inside of the computer when the computer is turned on.

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Other protection from esd cont

Other Protection from ESD (Cont)

  • When laying components down, lay them on a grounded mat or static shielding bag.

  • Always turn off the PC before moving it even a few inches. This will protect the hard drive.

  • Don’t place a PC on the floor where it might get kicked.

  • Keep disks away from magnetic fields, heat, and extreme cold.

  • Don’t open a disk’s shuttle window or touch the surface of a disk.

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A motherboard

A. Motherboard

  • The systemboard, also called the motherboard, is the main board in the computer. The CPU, ROM chips, DIMMs, and interface cards are plugged into the systemboard.

  • A systemboard’s primary purpose is to house the CPU and allow all devices to communicate with it and each other.

  • The two most popular systemboards are the older AT and the newer ATX.

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A motherboard cont

A. Motherboard (Cont.)

  • The AT systemboard has a power connection for 5 volt and 12 volt lines coming from the power supply.

  • To accommodate the newer CPUs that use less voltage, the ATX has lines for 5, 12, and 3.3 volts from the power supply.

  • ATX systemboard uses a single P1 power connection, but the AT board uses two power connections, P8 and P9.

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A motherboard cont1

A. Motherboard (Cont.)

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A motherboard at cont

A. Motherboard AT (Cont.)

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A motherboard atx cont

A. Motherboard ATX (Cont.)

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A motherboard cont2

A. Motherboard (Cont.)

  • Each board is available in two sizes.

  • The ATX boards include more power management features and support faster systems.

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A motherboard cont3

A. Motherboard (Cont.)

  • Components on a systemboard:

    • CPU and its accompanying chip set

    • System clock

    • ROM BIOS

    • CMOS configuration chip and its battery

    • RAM

    • System bus with expansion slots

    • Jumpers and DIP switches

    • Ports that come directly off the board

    • Power supply connections

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A motherboards cont

A. Motherboards (Cont.)

  • Only five components can be replaced or upgraded: CPU, ROM BIOS chip, CMOS battery, RAM, and RAM cache (old computers).

  • Because you can exchange these items without returning the systemboard to the manufacturer, they are called field replaceableunits.

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1 cpu and chipset

1. CPU and Chipset

  • The systemboard holds the most important microchip in the computer system, the CPU or Microprocessor, which does most of the “thinking” of the computer.

  • Most computers also contain microchips that relieve the CPU of many tasks to increase the overall speed of the computer.

  • CPUs are manufactured out of semiconductor material, which allows varying voltages to be carried along the same pathways, allowing this material to transmit streams of bits and bytes that are the heart of basic computer processing.

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2 system clock

2. System Clock

  • The systemboard contains a system clock that keeps the beat for many systemboard activities.

  • We use units called megahertz (MHz) to measure clock frequency. One Megahertz (MHz) is equal to 1,000,000 beats, or cycles, of the clock per second.

  • A single clock beat or cycle was once the smallest unit of processing the CPU or another device could execute, meaning that it could only do one thing for each beat of the clock.

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2 system clock cont

2. System Clock (Cont.)

  • Some CPUs today can perform two activities per clock cycle. Even though how fast a CPU can operate is often referred to as the CPU speed, it is more accurate but less common to speak of the CPU frequency. For example, you might say that a CPU can operate at a frequency of 550 MHz

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3 rom bios

3. ROM BIOS

  • There is one ROM chip on the systemboard that contains BIOS, which manages the startup process (startup BIOS) and many basic I/O functions of the system (system BIOS).

  • This one ROM BIOS chip on the systemboard contains only a portion of the total BIOS code needed to interface with all the hardware components in the system.

  • Understanding that BIOS programs can come from several sources helps in solving memory problems and other problems that arise from resource conflicts (NIC with BIOS chip)

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4 cmos

4. CMOS

  • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) is a type of semi-conductor chip that holds data without requiring an external power source.

  • System-board manuals should contain a list of all CMOS settings, an explanation of their meanings, and their recommended values. When you purchase a systemboard or a computer, be sure the manual is included for this purpose.

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Cmos cont

CMOS (Cont.)

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5 ram

5. RAM

  • A Personal Computer main memory is fast storage that is directly accessible by the CPU, and is used to store the currently executing program and immediately needed data.

  • Personal Computer use semiconductor Random Access Memory (RAM) of various kinds such as DRAM or SRAM as their primary storage which exact kind depends on cost/performance issues at any particular time.

  • Main memory is much faster than mass storage devices like hard disks or optical discs, but is usually volatile, meaning it does not retain its contents (instructions or data) in the absence of power, and is much more expensive for a given capacity than is most mass storage. Main memory is generally not suitable for long-term or archival data storage.

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5 ram cont

5. RAM (Cont.)

  • There are two types of RAM: dynamic RAM (DRAM) and static RAM (SRAM).Dynamic RAM chips hold data for a very short time; static RAM chips hold datauntil the power is turned off.

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6 system bus

6. System Bus

  • Buses are strips of parallel wires or printed circuits used to transmit electronic signals on the systemboard to other devices. Most Pentium systems use a 32-bit or 64-bit bus.

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7 power supply

7. Power Supply

  • The systemboard contains connections to receive power.

  • Two connections are found on the edge of the systemboard for the power supply. Voltages are sometimes written on the systemboard for each pin.

  • Voltages for most systemboards are +5v, –5v, +12v, and –12v

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Acquiring a motherboard

Acquiring a Motherboard

  • Types and speeds of the CPU you can use

  • Chip set on the board (already installed)

  • Memory cache type and size

  • Types and number of expansion slots: EISA, PCI, and AGP

  • Type of memory: SDRAM, SIMMs, or DIMMs

  • Maximum amount of memory you can install on the board and the incremental amounts by which you can upgrade memory

  • Type of case you can use

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Acquiring a motherboard cont

Acquiring a Motherboard (Cont.)

  • ROM BIOS (already installed)

  • Type of keyboard connector

  • Presence or absence of different types of proprietary video and/or proprietary local bus slots

  • Presence or absence of IDE adapters and SCSI controller

  • Presence or absence of COM ports, LPT ports, and mouse port

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Acquiring a motherboard cont1

Acquiring a Motherboard (Cont.)

  • Sometimes a systemboard contains a component that is more commonly offered as a separate device. A component on the board is called an embedded component. One example is support for video. The video port might be on the systemboard or might require a video card. The cost of a systemboard with an embedded component is usually less than the combined cost of a systemboard with an expansion card but no component.

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Acquiring a motherboard cont2

Acquiring a Motherboard (Cont.)

  • If you plan to expand, be cautious about choosing a proprietary board that has many embedded components. A proprietary design using many embedded devices often does not easily accept add-on devices from other manufacturers. For example, if you plan to add a more powerful video card, you might not want to choose a systemboard that contains an embedded video controller.

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Cit 358

To be continued…

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