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Chapter 18 Classification. Taxonomy. the science of classification Carolus Linnaeus’ system: Uses Latin…descriptive, universal, “dead” language that never changes Uses binomial nomenclature Two word naming system of Genus & species = scientific name

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Chapter 18 classification

Chapter 18

Classification


Taxonomy
Taxonomy

  • the science of classification

  • Carolus Linnaeus’ system:

    • Uses Latin…descriptive, universal, “dead” language that never changes

    • Uses binomial nomenclature

      • Two word naming system of Genus & species = scientific name

    • Uses hierarchy of categories (taxons) from general to specific:


  • Taxonomic levels
    Taxonomic levels

    Domain

    Eukarya

    Kingdom

    Animalia

    Chordata

    Phylum

    Class

    Mammalia

    Carnivora

    Order

    Felidae

    Family

    Lynx

    Genus

    Species

    Lynx

    canadensis

    Lynx

    rufus

    Lynx

    Bobcat


    Kingdom…Phylum…Class…Order…Family… Genus species…(variety) or (breed)



    Who am I?

    Scientific Name:

    Felisconcolor

    The Puma holds the Guinness record for the animal with the highest number of names. It has more than 40 names in English.

    Puma, Mountain lion, Cougar, Panther


    Comparing related animals
    Comparing related animals

    • Lynx canadensis, lynx

    • Felis concolor, mountain lion

    • Felis domesticus, house cat

    • Which two are more related? How do you know?

    Lynx

    House cat

    Mountain lion


    Human classification:

    Kingdom

    Animalia

    Phylum

    Chordata

    Class

    Mammalia

    Order

    Primates

    Family

    Hominidae

    Genus

    Homo

    species

    sapiens


    Remember the 2 cell types
    Remember the 2 Cell Types?

    • Prokaryotic

      • Small, simple cells without membrane-bound organelles; i.e. bacteria

    • Eukaryotic

      • Large, complex cells containing many specialized organelles, nucleus; i.e. plants, animals, protists & fungi


    • All living things are divided into groups based on:

      • Cell types (Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic)

      • Cell structure (cell walls, chloroplasts?)

      • Number of cells (unicellular vs. multicellular)

      • Movement (motile or non-motile)

      • Mode of nutrition (autotroph, heterotroph, saprobe)


    Domains
    Domains

    • Largest , most inclusive group

      • Archaea: Prokaryotic cells

        • 1 kingdom: Archaebacteria

      • Bacteria: Prokaryotic cells

        • 1 kingdom: Eubacteria

      • Eukarya: Eukaryotic cells

        • 4 kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia


    Kingdom archaebacteria
    Kingdom Archaebacteria

    • Most live in extreme environments

      • Most do not use oxygen to respire (anaerobic).

      • Ancestor to eukaryotes

    • Unicellular

    • Cell walls lack peptidoglycan

    • Can be heterotrophic or autotrophic

    • Some motile, others non-motile

    • Examples: Halophiles, methanogens.


    Kingdom eubacteria
    Kingdom Eubacteria

    • Unicellular

    • Very strong cell walls (peptidoglycan)

    • Autotrophic or heterotrophic

    • diverse habitat

    • Some motile, other non-motile

    • Ex: streptococcus, Escherichia coli


    Kingdom protista
    Kingdom Protista

    • Most are unicellular, few are multicellular

      • lacks complex organ systems

    • lives in moist environments

    • diverse metabolism/motility

      • Animal-Like

      • Plant-Like (cellulose, chloroplasts)

      • Fungus-Like

    • Ex: Amoeba, euglena, slime molds


    Fungi overview
    Fungi overview

    • Saprobes: decomposes matter by absorbing materials

    • Multicellular (mushrooms) or unicellular (yeast)

    • Cell walls (chitin)

    • Non-motile


    Kingdom plantae
    Kingdom Plantae

    • Multicellular

    • Autotrophic: Photosynthetic

      • Cells contain chloroplasts

    • Immobile

    • Cell walls (cellulose)

    • Ex: grass, rose


    Kingdom animalia
    Kingdom Animalia

    • Multicellular

    • Mobile (at one point during their lifetime)

    • Lack cell walls

    • Diverse habitats

    • Heterotrophic

    • Ex: insects, worms,

      squirrels, birds


    Exit Ticket

    Which characteristic describes these three organisms?

    Unicellular

    Heterotrophic

    Prokaryotic

    Phototrophic



    Dichotomous key system to identify organisms and their scientific names
    Dichotomous key: system to identify organisms and their scientific names

    • A key is made up of sets of numbered statements.

    • Each set deals with a single characteristic of an organism, such as leaf shape (toothed or smooth edge) or number of teeth (more than 30 or less than 30).

    • It’s kind of like the game 20 questions



    Phylogeny studying the evolutionary histories and relationships of organisms
    Phylogeny: Studying the evolutionary histories and relationships of organisms

    • Cladistics: a phylogenic study that assumes when probable groups of organisms diverged and evolved

    Allosaurus

    Velociraptor

    Archaeopteryx

    Sinornis

    Theropods

    Flight feathers;

    arms as long

    as legs

    Feathers with

    shaft, veins,

    and barbs

    3-toed foot;

    wishbone

    Down

    feathers

    Light bones


    Cladograms
    Cladograms

    • “Family tree” that represents evolutionary relationships (and not just physical appearances)


    Cladogram

    Lizard

    Mouse

    Fish

    Hagfish

    Frog

    Pigeon

    Feathers

    Claws

    or Nails

    Lungs

    Jaws

    CLADOGRAM

    Chimp

    Fur &

    Mammary

    Glands


    Nutritional types

    Auto(photo) Hetero(absorb) Hetero(ingest)

    Plantae

    Fungi

    Animalia

    (Seaweeds)

    Multi

    Uni

    Protista

    Eu

    Pro

    Bacteria

    Evolution and the 6 Kingdoms


    What determines evolutionary relationship
    What determines evolutionary relationship?

    • Anatomy and physiology

      • Common structures imply a common ancestor.

    • Breeding and behavior patterns

    • Geographic distribution

    • DNA and biochemistry

    DNA comparisons between these plants show almost no difference.


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