chapter 18 classification
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Chapter 18 Classification

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 30

Chapter 18 Classification - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 82 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 18 Classification. Taxonomy. the science of classification Carolus Linnaeus’ system: Uses Latin…descriptive, universal, “dead” language that never changes Uses binomial nomenclature Two word naming system of Genus & species = scientific name

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 18 Classification' - gisela


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 18 classification
Chapter 18

Classification

taxonomy
Taxonomy
    • the science of classification
  • Carolus Linnaeus’ system:
    • Uses Latin…descriptive, universal, “dead” language that never changes
    • Uses binomial nomenclature
      • Two word naming system of Genus & species = scientific name
    • Uses hierarchy of categories (taxons) from general to specific:
taxonomic levels
Taxonomic levels

Domain

Eukarya

Kingdom

Animalia

Chordata

Phylum

Class

Mammalia

Carnivora

Order

Felidae

Family

Lynx

Genus

Species

Lynx

canadensis

Lynx

rufus

Lynx

Bobcat

slide6

Who am I?

Scientific Name:

Felisconcolor

The Puma holds the Guinness record for the animal with the highest number of names. It has more than 40 names in English.

Puma, Mountain lion, Cougar, Panther

comparing related animals
Comparing related animals
  • Lynx canadensis, lynx
  • Felis concolor, mountain lion
  • Felis domesticus, house cat
  • Which two are more related? How do you know?

Lynx

House cat

Mountain lion

slide8

Human classification:

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Mammalia

Order

Primates

Family

Hominidae

Genus

Homo

species

sapiens

remember the 2 cell types
Remember the 2 Cell Types?
  • Prokaryotic
    • Small, simple cells without membrane-bound organelles; i.e. bacteria
  • Eukaryotic
    • Large, complex cells containing many specialized organelles, nucleus; i.e. plants, animals, protists & fungi
slide10

All living things are divided into groups based on:

    • Cell types (Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic)
    • Cell structure (cell walls, chloroplasts?)
    • Number of cells (unicellular vs. multicellular)
    • Movement (motile or non-motile)
    • Mode of nutrition (autotroph, heterotroph, saprobe)
domains
Domains
  • Largest , most inclusive group
    • Archaea: Prokaryotic cells
      • 1 kingdom: Archaebacteria
    • Bacteria: Prokaryotic cells
      • 1 kingdom: Eubacteria
    • Eukarya: Eukaryotic cells
      • 4 kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
kingdom archaebacteria
Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Most live in extreme environments
    • Most do not use oxygen to respire (anaerobic).
    • Ancestor to eukaryotes
  • Unicellular
  • Cell walls lack peptidoglycan
  • Can be heterotrophic or autotrophic
  • Some motile, others non-motile
  • Examples: Halophiles, methanogens.
kingdom eubacteria
Kingdom Eubacteria
  • Unicellular
  • Very strong cell walls (peptidoglycan)
  • Autotrophic or heterotrophic
  • diverse habitat
  • Some motile, other non-motile
  • Ex: streptococcus, Escherichia coli
kingdom protista
Kingdom Protista
  • Most are unicellular, few are multicellular
    • lacks complex organ systems
  • lives in moist environments
  • diverse metabolism/motility
    • Animal-Like
    • Plant-Like (cellulose, chloroplasts)
    • Fungus-Like
  • Ex: Amoeba, euglena, slime molds
fungi overview
Fungi overview
  • Saprobes: decomposes matter by absorbing materials
  • Multicellular (mushrooms) or unicellular (yeast)
  • Cell walls (chitin)
  • Non-motile
kingdom plantae
Kingdom Plantae
  • Multicellular
  • Autotrophic: Photosynthetic
    • Cells contain chloroplasts
  • Immobile
  • Cell walls (cellulose)
  • Ex: grass, rose
kingdom animalia
Kingdom Animalia
  • Multicellular
  • Mobile (at one point during their lifetime)
  • Lack cell walls
  • Diverse habitats
  • Heterotrophic
  • Ex: insects, worms,

squirrels, birds

slide21

Exit Ticket

Which characteristic describes these three organisms?

Unicellular

Heterotrophic

Prokaryotic

Phototrophic

dichotomous key system to identify organisms and their scientific names
Dichotomous key: system to identify organisms and their scientific names
  • A key is made up of sets of numbered statements.
  • Each set deals with a single characteristic of an organism, such as leaf shape (toothed or smooth edge) or number of teeth (more than 30 or less than 30).
  • It’s kind of like the game 20 questions
phylogeny studying the evolutionary histories and relationships of organisms
Phylogeny: Studying the evolutionary histories and relationships of organisms
  • Cladistics: a phylogenic study that assumes when probable groups of organisms diverged and evolved

Allosaurus

Velociraptor

Archaeopteryx

Sinornis

Theropods

Flight feathers;

arms as long

as legs

Feathers with

shaft, veins,

and barbs

3-toed foot;

wishbone

Down

feathers

Light bones

cladograms
Cladograms
  • “Family tree” that represents evolutionary relationships (and not just physical appearances)
cladogram

Lizard

Mouse

Fish

Hagfish

Frog

Pigeon

Feathers

Claws

or Nails

Lungs

Jaws

CLADOGRAM

Chimp

Fur &

Mammary

Glands

slide29

Nutritional types

Auto(photo) Hetero(absorb) Hetero(ingest)

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

(Seaweeds)

Multi

Uni

Protista

Eu

Pro

Bacteria

Evolution and the 6 Kingdoms

what determines evolutionary relationship
What determines evolutionary relationship?
  • Anatomy and physiology
    • Common structures imply a common ancestor.
  • Breeding and behavior patterns
  • Geographic distribution
  • DNA and biochemistry

DNA comparisons between these plants show almost no difference.

ad