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JRA3 : Technology development for high-time-resolution astronomy. ( HTRA: ~ 1 00 ms -- 1 μs ). - To develop the most promising technologies for HTRA - Assess relative strengths/areas of application in astronomy. Corfu 10/9/07. JRA3. - Indicative budget 1.2 M€

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Corfu 10/9/07

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Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3:

Technology development

for high-time-resolution astronomy

( HTRA: ~ 100 ms -- 1μs )

- To develop the most promising

technologies for HTRA

- Assess relative strengths/areas of application

in astronomy

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

- Indicative budget 1.2 M€

- 3 main technology WPs

- 4 ‘connective tissue’ WPs

Partners

Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik

Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge

National University of Ireland, GalwayUniversity of Warwick

Sheffield University

UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Edinburgh

Landessternwarte Heidelberg

Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik

European Southern Observatory

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Need for high time resolution

1. Rapidly varying astronomical objects

2. Rapidly varying earth atmosphere

(adaptive optics)

123s

GX 339-4 13/5/04 FORS2 HITI

Key requirement for high time resolution astronomy:

single photon detection

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Contractors and workpackages

WP4 Avalanche photodiode arrays

WP2 EM-CCDs (L3CCDs)

WP3 Avalanche amplified pn-CCDs

WP5 CCD controllers

WP6 Software

WP7 Testbeds

WP1 Management

NUIG

Sheffield

Warwick

UKATC

MPG/MPE

ESO

IoA, NOTSA

MPG/MPA, LSW

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Projected JRA3 spending by technology

Avalanche photodiodes

Electron multiplied CCDs

Avalanche amplified PN CCDs

‘connective tissue’

17%

40%

30%

13%

~ 1985

2004

2008

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

WP4 APD-array development

National University of Ireland

in collaboration with University College Cork

JRA3

Single detectors in use for HTRA and AO

Array elements have

to be spatially separated

(crosstalk)

- to be fed with

- lenslet arrays or

- fibers

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

APD arrays (WP4)

  • Fibre fed APD array

  • Fibres epoxied by UV curing to APD devices

  • Elimination of cross talk issue due to

  • separated APD elements

On-chip arrays

Individual fibres aligned on to APD dies in ceramic packages

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

APD arrays (WP4)

Summary and perspective APD technology

- known technology

- limitations: cross-talk,

dark current

non-uniformity.

- close to its technological limit

- CCD-based technologies encroaching

on its territory

but ...

- still the only technology for highest

time resolution

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

L3CCDs (EM-CCDs) WP2, WP5, WP7

● Conventional CCDs: spurious electrons on readout

● ‘EM’: On-chip electron multiplication

● Available now (E2V, TI)

● JRA3 activities:

1 Controller development for high time resolution applications

- up to 60 Mpix/s

2 Application tests:

- ‘Lucky images’: cheating the seeing limit

- HTRA: rapidly varying objects

- (photon counted spectra)

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

‘Lucky images’

E2V EM-CCD

+

fast controller

(WP5,6,2)

M13

Cat’s Eye

all frames

10% best frames

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

‘Lucky images’

pulsar in crab nebula

P=30 ms

exposures 2 ms

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

Spectra with single-photon detection

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

WP5 controllers for EM-CCDs

Controller boards, vacuum interface & chip support

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Summary and perspective EM-CCDs

● Best currently available technology

● Advances in controllers & data processing technology

● Shows the potential of photon counting CCDs for

- high time resolution observations

- angular resolution improvement by ‘lucky imaging’

- wavefront sensors for AO

● technology still developing rapidly

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Avalanche-amplified pn-sensors (AA-pn)

● Alternative silicon technology for same purpose

● Developed at the semiconductor laboratory of

the MPG,

● Initiated by JRA3

● Technology elements produced and tested (Aug 2007)

● Prototype device by end of 2008

● elements:

- thick detection layer (0.5mm)

- avalanche amplifier

- AR coatings

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Avalanche-amplified pn-CCDs (WP3)

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Avalanche-amplified pn-CCDs (WP3)

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Avalanche-amplified pn-CCDs (WP3)

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Avalanche-amplified pn-CCDs (WP3)

Differences ↔ E2V EM-CCD

1. Parallel readout + slower clock

→ lower readout noise

→ lower amplification factor →

● higher dynamic range and

● no internally generated photons

2. Deep depletion layer →

● near-IR wavelength sensitivity

3.AR coating technology:

● broader wavelength range

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Avalanche-amplified pn-CCDs (WP3)

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Avalanche-amplified pn-CCDs (WP3)

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Summary and perspective AA-pn CCDs

● represents next generation electron-multiplied CCD technology

- photon counting accuracy

- wavelength range

- IR sensitivity

- time resolution (<1 ms)

● development on schedule

● full-scale CCD currently ‘in the oven’, functional tests mid-2008

● prototype device and controller expected by end 2008

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

‘connective tissue’

- camera head development (WP7, completed)

- higher level software interfaces (WP6, under

construction)

- management (WP1)

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

UKATC high voltage clock (WP5)

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

WP 7 Cooled camera head (in ESO cryostat)

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Management

Main events since start of contract

- Transfer of management from LSW Heidelberg to MPA (July 05)

- Redefinition of technology contribution MPE (Feb 05)

- Common hardware platform for comparison of technologies

replaced by software procedure (Feb 05)

- Definitive finance plan JRA3 approved by OPTICON board (Oct 05)

Status August

- 95% of work on track

- Technologies successful beyond expectation

- Major innovations achieved in high time resolution CCDs

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Miles and deliverables (as of Aug 2007)

achieved/delivered

WP1 M1, M2, M3

WP2 M1, M2, D1

WP3 M1, M2, D1

WP4 M1

WP5 M1,M2,M3,D1

WP6 M1

WP7 M1, D1

WP8 M1

remaining

D2

D2

M3, D2

M2, D2

D2

D1

completed

D1

Corfu 10/9/07


Corfu 10 9 07

JRA3

Corfu 10/9/07


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